Flashcards in The History of the Family in Canada Deck (20):
what were the 5 vital functions of the family?
2. production (economically)
4. Maintenance (families kept members sheltered, alive and fed)
5. Regulation (learning whats normal and how to have self control)
What was the main dominating family(ies) type during Precolonical and Colonial times (1700s to 1800s)?
- stem families were common during pre-colonization period : couple gets married and moves back to original home; extended families were the general pattern in both pre-contact
throughout colonization, there was a bunch of land and cheap labour; so families sort of resembled a nuclear family but without the breadwinner, because everyone was doing some type of work; children were required for labour so families had lots of children
family was important in social and economic life in early colonial period
What was the main event that occurred to families during the Victorian/IUrbanization/Industrialization period (mid 1800s to early 1900s)
- separation of spheres and Victorian Family formed (public and domestic spheres separated)
- there was also more state intervention in the family and the "child" --> school was made mandatory and child Labour laws were enacted
whats the difference between public and domestic/private spheres brought on by Queen Victoria?
public world --> world of men, business, jobs etc..
domestic sphere --> inspiration of first wave feminism; women stay at home and do jobs of the house
what effect did the child labour laws cause in the shift of the family?
women were lumped into children not being able to work until a certain age and were kicked out of the workplace to take cause of the children, thus giving rise of the male breadwinner; the rest of the family had to 'earn' their ability to exist from the male breadwinner
What is the The Social Gospel and Radical Christianity in Canada? when did it start?
this is still during Victorian era of mid 1800s to early 1900s;
J.S. Woodsworth created the United Church of Canada --> focused on radical charity and radical 'giving' in the name of the lord etc...
methodist minister J.S woodsworth had a key role in creating the United Church of Canada
Social gospelism focuses on christian commitment to end suffering in the world and focused on saving white christians
What did social gospel give rise to politically?
Gave rise to democratic socialism and the welfare state in Canada
Tommy Douglas and J.S. Woodsworth are evangelical ministered that later founded not only public/universal healthcare (Douglas) but also the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) which then transformed into the Democratic Party (NDP) in 1961.
who said "economic systems are made for men, not men for economic systems"?
What is Scientific racism and when did it start?
scientific racism was a victorian philosophy (again 1800s to early 1900s) that made use of Darwin's evolutionary theory to legitimize the radicalization of humanity and the white 'race' as the pinnacle of human achievement
What were some of the examples of Scientific racism impinged upon Canadians during victorian era?
the state tied to block reproduction
1. Indian act (1867) --> legal genocide; made it difficult for indigenous people to be indigenous before the law and added the element of patriarchy by making the male of aboriginal descent be the one in charge of the household
2. Residential schools --> cultural genocide fuelled by scientific racism
3. Chinese Immigration Act --> made it impossible for Chinese immigrants who came to Canada to work to be able to bring their families over to Canada and had to pay extra taxes and funds just keep their families in Canada
What were the three big changes that occurred during the inter-war period (1920's and 1930s)
1. first wave feminism --> "suffragettes" and the vote; argued that women were well suited for improving society because of their natural domesticity (nurturing mother traits)
2. Temperance and prohibition --> belief in abstinence from alcoholic beverages, sex, drugs etc....
3. Eugenics --> Pseudo-science inspired by Darwin that was premised on notions of scientific racism and "selective breeding"
Who were the famous 5?
1. Emily murphy
2. Irene parlby
3. Nellie mcclung
4. louse mckinney
5. Henrietta Muir Edwards
Which 2 of the famous 5 aided in the sterilization act as a form of "birth control"?
Louise Mcckiney and Murphy
which were the two top places that housed mentally ill and preformed eugenics?
1. Ponoka institute Alberta
2. Mitchner institute Alberta
What 5 things occurred during the "Dark Ages": Post War Era? (1940s to early 1960s)
1. Women and WII --> men came back without jobs so the only way for them to get jobs was to kick the women back into the domestic lifestyle
2. rise of the nuclear family and need for affluence
3. the baby boom --> between late forties and early sixties; birth rates increased by 18% (baby bonuses were given to keep women at home)
5. Cultural penetration of the television
What are the three sources of the Sexual Revolution in late 1960s to the 1970s?
1. Socio-political: second wave feminism
2. Legal: no fault divorce, and partial legalization of homosexuality and abortion (decriminalization)
3. Technological --> birth control and the pill
what caused the socio-political sources of the sexual revolution? (of 1960's to 1970s)
- second-wave feminism:
- the Women's Liberation Movement --> which challenged gender inequality in more thorough and radical way, and included social, economic and political inequalities
- developed alongside New Left and Civil Rights Movement
there was less emphasis on voting compared to the first wave of feminism
What were the legal sources of the sexual revolution?
- No-fault divorce in 1968 --> after the Divorce act of 1968, a person no longer had to prove their marital partner did something wrong in order to divorce them
- partial legalization of homosexuality (1969) --> sodomy made legal if its done privately between two consenting homosexual and heterosexual adults
- partial legalization of abortion (1969) --> abortion could be obtained if a committee of three doctors feels the pregnancy endangers the mental, emotional, or physical well-being of mother
What was the technological source of the sexual revolution?
the invention of the pill in 1951, and made available to Canada by 1966
contraceptives were decriminalized in 1969