What does preconception counseling include?
Health problems, physical exam, nutrition, exercise, family planning, changing health behaviors
How long is the lifespan of sperm?
How long is the lifespan of ovum?
When is maximum fertility?
5days before ovulation
What method of fertility awareness is based on assumption that ovulation occurs 14days before their next period?
What method of fertility awareness is based on assumption that ovulation will occur after a slight decrease in temp; female takes temp before ANY morning activity (ex. brushing teeth) and records the reading?
Basal Body Temp (BBT)
What method of fertility awareness is based on assumption that after ovulation mucus is very thin allowing sperm for motility, female assesses menstral mucus after ovulation?
Billings Method (Cervical Mucus)
What method of contraception is abstinence, coitus interruptus (pullout method) or douching after intercourse?
What method of contraception is nonxynol-9 and can come in a cream, gel, jelly, foam, vaginal film or suppository?
What does spermicide films and foams do to sperm and when should they be inserted?
Destroys sperm by disrupting cell membrane, and before sex
When is spermicide suppository inserted?
30 min before sex
What method of contraception is male and female condoms, diaphragm and cervical cap?
What method of contraception is IUD’s?
What method of contraception is combined estrogen-progesterone, combined oral: pill, deep-provera, nuvaring, and skin patches?
What method of contraception is vasectomy and tubal ligation?
Hormonal contraceptives inhibit release of ovum by making what?
Thick cervical mucous
What is the permanent cessation of menses?
Perimenopausal period lasts for several years and begins w/ what?
Decline in production of estrogen bc of loss of ovarian function
What occurs 1yr after final menstrual period?
What are some objective s/s of menopause?
saggy breasts, loss of body hair, decrease in skin elasticity and subQ fat
What are some subjective s/s of menopause?
Vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, urine incontinence, hot flashes, diaphoresis, fractures, and hypnosis
What is the treatment for menopause?
Hormonal replacement therapy
What can hormonal replacement therapy cause?
Increase risk for cancer
What marks the natural biological process end of reproduction and viability?
What are menstruation discomforts that have more serious physiological and psychological effects than normal?
What is a complex manifestation of mood swings, fatigue, irritability, depression, food cravings, breast tenderness, dysmenorrhea, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)?
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
What is pain/discomfort associated w/ menstruation?
What is vaginal bleeding that’s painless but is an increase in amount, duration and time of occurrence?
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB)
What changes accompany PMS?
Hormonal changes: altered estrogen/progesterone levels, increased prolactin levels and rising aldosterone levels
What phase of the menstrual cycle occurs 7-10days prior to onset of period?
What type of BUD is an absence of menstruation that primarily occurs in 14-16y/o, and 2nd sex characteristics fail to develop?
What is resulted from structural abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, and polycystic ovary disease?
What type of BUD is excessive/prolonged menstruation resulting from thyroid disorders, endometriosis, PID, ovarian cysts, uterine fibroids or clotting disorders?
What type of BUD is bleeding b/t period “spotting” that results from hormonal imbalance, PID, cervical/uterine polyps/fibroids, cervical/uterine cancers?
What pelvic exams help diagnose menstrual dysfunction?
Pap smear, cervical/vaginal cultures
What diagnostic procedures help diagnose menstrual dysfunction?
Pelvis/vaginal U/S, CT or MRI or laparoscopy
What lab tests help diagnose menstrual dysfunction?
FSH and LH levels, CBC, Progesterone and estradiol levels (to assess ovarian function), and thyroid function
What pharmacological therapies are used for menstrual dysfunctions?
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH), oral contraceptives, NSAIDs, diuretics
What med is used for menstrual dysfunctions, but can’t be used if pregnant?
What SSRI’s are used for menstrual dysfunctions and are safe for breastfeeding?
Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil
What surgery is performed for menstruation dysfunctions that scrapes the uterine wall?
What surgery is performed for menstruation dysfunctions that is used if therapeutic D/C fails and permanently destroys layers of endometrium by a laser?
What other surgery is performed for menstruation dysfunctions?