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Flashcards in Shit i dont know Deck (15)
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1

Organ Specific Autoimmune conditions

Hashimoto’s
Thyrotoxicosis
Primary myxoedema
Chronic atrophic gastritis
Pernicious anaemia
Addison’s Disease
Myasthenia gravis
Diabetes mellitus (type 1)

2

Intermediate / Mixed Autoimmune conditions

Goodpasture’s syndrome
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Autoimmune haemolytic disease
Ulcerative colitis

3

Non-Organ specific Autoimmune conditions

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Rheumatoid arthritis
Sjogren’s syndrome
Progressive systemic sclerosis

4

Oral Bioavailability Equation from graph

Oral Bioavailability =(AUC oral)/(AUC IV) × 100

5

Components of First Pass Metabolism

The Gut Lumen
Gastric acid, proteolytic enzymes, grapefruit juice

The Gut Wall
P-glycoprotein efflux pumps drugs out of the intestinal enterocytes back into the lumen, e.g. cicosporin

The Liver
Substances absorbed in the ileum enter the portal circulation and are taken to the liver, where enzyme systems metabolise them

6

`Volume of Distribution equation

Volume of Distribution= (Total Amount of Drug in Body)/(Plasma Concentration of Drug at time zero)

7

Body distribution VOD values estimate

When the volume of distribution is less than 5 Litres, it is likely that the drug is restricted to the vasculature.

If it is less than 15 Litres, this implies that the drug is restricted to the extracellular fluid

Greater than 15 Litres suggests distribution within the total body fluid.

Some drugs (usually basic) have a volume of distribution that exceeds body weight, in which case tissue binding is occurring

8

Phase II metabolism, most common conjugates and requirements

The reactive intermediate from Phase I is conjugated with a polar molecule to form a water-soluble complex. The process is also known as conjugation.

Glucoronic acid is the most common conjugate, as it’s an available by-product of cell metabolism. Drugs can also be conjugated with sulphate ions and glutathione.
Phase II metabolism requires specific enzymes and a high-energy cofactor, uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDPGA).

9

Half Life equation

Half Life= (0.693 × Volume of Distribution)/Clearance

10

Rate of Metabolism equation

Rate of Metabolism=(Vmax [C])/Km

11

Steady State Concentration in Plasma (CpSS) equation

Steady State Concentration in Plasma (CpSS)= (Dose Rate)/Clearance

12

Loading Dose equation

Loading Dose (Dose L)= Vd ×CpSS

13

Common drug drug interaction drugs

Anticonvulsants
Phenytoin
Carbamezepine

Anticoagulants
Warfarin

Antidepressants
Monoaimine Oxidases

Antibiotics
Rifampicin
Macrolides
Quinolones

Antiarrhythmics
Amiodarone

14

Enzyme involved in warfarin metabolism

Warfarin – CYP2C9

15

Enzyme involved in codeine metabolism

Codeine – CYP2D6