Describe the attributes of a Process Layout.
- Functional grouping of activities
- Customisation of products possible
- Low fixed costs, high variable costs
- Skilled and versatile labour force
- General purpose equipment
- Low/fluctuating demand - Varied path
Describe the attributes of a Product Layout.
- Standardised goods
- Sequential arrangement of operations
- High/ stable demand
- Labour force cheaper/ less skilled
- Special purpose equipment - Fixed path
Quantify the production quantities.
1< quantity <100 (low production)
100< quantity <10000 (medium production)
<10000 quantity (high production)
What are the attributes of hard product variety?
Products manufactured differ substantially:
- low/no production of common parts
- Different product catagories
What are the attributes of soft product variety?
Only a small difference in products produced:
- High proportion of common parts - Different products within the same catagory
Draw the layout of a general production system.
Draw a annotated graph of product variety vs prodcution quantity.
What are the important considerations when selecting a production system?
Flexibility: The probable length of the production run
Variety: The number of product variants
Volume: the number of products to be produced
Size: the overall size of the product
FSVV- Viciously Suck Sarahs Vagina
List the main objectives of Layout Design.
- Attainable quality of product or service
- Efficient use of workers and space
- Minimise movement of materials and workers
- Time to produce products or services
Name the typical production layout formats for low production.
- Job shop
- Fixed position layout
Name the typical production process layouts for Medium Production.
- Batch production
- Cellular Manufacturing or Group Technology
Name the typical process layouts for High Production.
- Quantity production
- Flow line production: single model or mixed model
What are the characteristics of a jobshop?
•Fixed position or process based layout
•1 < prod. quantity < 100
•Specialised and customised products
•Products are typically complex in nature
•Wide part and product variations
•Designed for maximum flexibility
•May include fabrication of the components
•Customer orders are generally special
•General purpose equipment is used
•Labour is high-skilled.
Flexible enough to deal with hard product variety.
What are the attributes of a fixed position layout?
Definition: Labour, equipment and materials are bougth to the location where the product is produced.
•Equipment, workers, materials and other resources brought to the site.
•Utilises highly skilled labour
•One location for entire the manufacturing period
What are the advantages and disavantages of a Fixed Position Layout?
Advantages of Fixed Position Layout:
•Reduces movement of work items.
•Minimises damage or cost of moving.
•More continuity of the assigned work force.
•Reduces the problems of re-planning and instructing people each time a new type of activity is to begin.
Disadvantages of Fixed Position Layout:
•Since the same workers are involved in more operations, skilled and versatile workers are required. The necessary combination of skills may be difficult to find and high pay levels may be necessary.
•Movement of people and equipment to and from the work site may be expensive.
•Equipment utilisation may be low because the equipment may be left at a location where it will be needed again in a few days rather than moved to another location where it would be productive.
What is the definition and main attributes of a Process Layout?
Definition: Designing the shop floor in such a way that equipment and labour are arranged according to their function.
•The layout can handle varied processing requirements.
•Equipment is arranged according to function or type.
•Machines and/or workers are grouped together doing similar tasks.
•Different parts with different operation sequence are routed through the departments in the particular order for their processing.
•This layout can be process or function focused
Draw a schematic for a Process Layout.
List the advantages and disadvantages of a Process Layout.
Advantages of Process Layout:
•Variety of processing requirements, greater process flexibility
• More general purpose equipment, equipment used is less costly
•Lower initial investment
•Not vulnerable to equipment failures
Disadvantages of Process Layout:
•In-process inventory costs can be high
•Challenging routing and scheduling
•Equipment utilisation rates are low
•Material handling slow and inefficient
What are the main attributes and definition of Batch Manufacturing?
Definition: A technique used in manufacturing, in which the product is created stage by stage over a series of workstations, and different batches of products are made.
•Batch processes are used to produce medium quantities of batches based on customer order or specification. I.e. shoes, pharmaceuticals etc.
•Changeover in physical setup and/or equipment programming is required between products.
•Changeover time between batches is lost time on the manufacturing system.
•Repeated orders for each product and hard product variety.
Batch production is used in make-to-stock situations to replenish inventory that has been depleted by demand.
Draw a batch production model layout.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of batch production?
Advantages of Batch Production:
•Flow of materials and ability to use special equipment at each work station
•Flexibility to produce variety of products in different volumes
•Not vulnerable to equipment failures
Disadvantages of Batch Production:
•Less efficient as it accommodates variety of tasks at a number of work stations - same as job shop.
•More waiting time because of variations in processing time, batch size and machine set-up times.
•Larger space requirements for in-process inventory
•Complex scheduling & coordination (long throughput times)
What is the definition and main attributes of Cellular Manufacturing?
Definition of Cellular Manufacturing :
Cellular Manufacturing is based upon the principles of Group Technology, which seeks to take full advantage of the similarity between parts, through standardization and common processing.
•Dissimilar machines or processes are aggregated into cells
•Each cell is dedicated to the production of a:
2. product family, or
3. limited group of families.
Draw a schematic of a Celluar Layout.
List the advantages and disadvantages of Celluar Manufacturing.
Advantages of Cellular Manufacturing:
•Reduced material handling
•More efficient scheduling, reduced set-up time
•Reduced waiting time
•Less space needed (less in-process inventory)
Disadvantages of Cellular Manufacturing:
•Reduced shop flexibility
•Possible reduced machine utilisation
•Machine layout need reorganisation often
Complex scheduling & coordination (long throughput times)
What is the definiton of quantity manufacturing?
Manufacturing single components on single pieces of equipment at scale.
What is the definition and attributes of Flow Line Manufacturing?
Definition of Flow Line Production:
Links up with a strategy of undifferentiated marketing, whereas batch production suggests that the product is tailored to suit the needs of particular customers or segments.
•Multiple workstations arranged in sequence, parts or assemblies are physically moved through the sequence to complete the product.
•Facilities and workers arranged in line according to sequence of operations for a particular product or service (assembly line).
•Workstations consist of production machines, workers equipped with specialised tools.
•The collection of stations is designed specifically for the product to maximise efficiency.
•At each station, a small amount of the total work is completed on each unit of product.
•Simplifies tasks, enabling unskilled workers to learn task quickly.
•Large investments: special-purpose equipment and duplication is required to offset lack of flexibility in timing.
•Dependence of the whole on each part: a breakdown of one machine or absence of enough operators to staff all work stations may stop the entire line.
Draw a schematic of single model flow line production.
Draw a schematic of mixed model flow line production.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Flow Line Production?
- Very efficient at producing high volume low variety products
- High equipment utilization
- Less skilled labour force
- Easier production planning and control
- Less flexible
- Higher capital investment
- Suseptible to shutdowns and equipment failure
- Highly specialised equipment
What is the definition of a product layout?
A manufacturing system where workers and goods are arranged a long a line of production.