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Flashcards in Short Answers Deck (84):
1

______ reasoning is where a conclusion follows from a consideration of evidence. This conclusion is stated as being probably true rather than definitely true, as can be the case for the conclusions from _____ reasoning

Inductive; Deductive

2

A conclusion follows from a consideration of evidence is called ____ reasoning

Inductive

3

Inductive reasoning is one of the primary mechanisms involved in making ______

Judgements

4

_____ ______ is one of the primary mechanisms involved in making judgements

Inductive reasoning

5

One of the characteristics of _____ reasoning is that the conclusions we reach are probably true, but not definitely true

Inductive

6

_____ reasoning is the basis of scientific investigations in which observations are made, data is collected, and conclusions are drawn

Inductive

7

All swans we have seen have been white; therefore all swans are white. This is an example of _____ reasoning

Inductive (you are making a claim from your observations)

8

Since all men are mortal, and Socrates is a man, Socrates is mortal. This is an example of _____ reasoning

deductive

9

Representativeness of Observations, Number of observations, and quality of the evidence are three factors that can contribute to the stregnth of an ______ argument

inductive

10

Anytime we make a prediction about what will happen based on our observations of what has happened we are using _____ reasoning

Inductive

11

An example of _____ reasoning is sitting on a swing without checking if it can hold your weight, because by inferring past observations and experiences with swings, you infer this one will also hold your weight

Inductive

12

The Availability heuristic and the ______ heuristic are shortcuts involved in _____ reasoning

Representativeness; inductive

13

In ____ reasoning we determine whether a conclusion logically follows from statements called premises

Deductive

14

What type of reasoning are syllogisms and premises associated with?

Deductive

15

Who was the father of deductive reasoning?

Aristotle

16

The basic form of deductive reasoning is called ____

Syllogisms

17

Validity and Truth are associated with ____ reasoning

Deductive

18

What type of reasoning can result in definite conclusions?

Deductive

19

What is a garden path sentence?

A sentence in which the meaning that seems to be implied at the beginning of a sentence turns out to be incorrect, based on information that is presented later in the sentence

20

A sentence in which the meaning that seems to be implied at the beginning of a sentence turns out to be incorrect, based on information that is presented later in the sentence
This is called a ___ ___ sentence

Garden Path

21

_____ reasoning involves making conclusions from premises that are accurate, whereas _____ reasoning involves making conclusions suggested by premises.

Deductive; Inductive

22

Temporary ambiguity is illustrated by ___ ___ sentences

Garden Path Sentences

23

The garden path sentence is associated with the ____-first approach to parsing

Syntax-first approach to parsing

24

We see garden path errors when we follow the ___-first approach to parsing

Syntax

25

What approach tends to lead us up the garden path?

Syntax-first approach to understanding sentences

26

When initial words are ambiguous, but the meaning is made clear by the end of a sentence

Temporary ambiguity

27

The old man the boat. is an example of a ____ ____ sentence

Garden Path

28

The grouping of words into phrases is called ____

Parsing

29

How do you resolve a garden path sentence

By rearraging the sentence in their mind, until it is syntactically and semantically correct to them

30

____ proposed that thought was impossible without an image

Aristotle

31

What is the imageless thought debate?

A debate about whether or not thought and thinking can occur with or without images

32

____ proposed that images were one of the three basic elements of consciousness

Wundt

33

What Wundt and Aristotle were for the notion that thought was impossible without images, ____ thought the opposite

Galton

34

_____ argument against that of Wundt was formed from his observations that people who had great difficulty forming visual images were still quite capable of thinking

Galton

35

What observations led Galton to believe that thought was possible without images

his observations that people who had great difficulty forming visual images were still quite capable of thinking

36

What were two experiments that encouraged the idea of imagery in thought?

The conceptual peg hypothesis and Mental Chronometry

37

The conceptual ___ hypothesis and Mental ____ both conclude that images are involved in thought

Peg; Chronometry

38

What did Metzler's and Shepard's Mental Chronometry suggest?

That imagery and perception may share the same mechanisms

39

Shepard and Metzler's results showed that Mental and perceptual images both involve ____ representation of a stimulus

Spatial

40

The ____ experience for both imagery and perception matches the layout of the actual stimulus

Spatial

41

The idea that there is a spatial correspondence between imagery and perception is supported by a number of experiments by Stephen Kosslyn involving a task called ____ scanning

Mental

42

Pylyshyn argued that imagery is not spatial and that it could be an _____

epiphenomenon

43

Kosslyn used the experiment of a visual walk task to infer that a reason that imagery and perception might be related is the ___ in the visual field

Size

44

Perky's study with a projector proposes that ___ and perception ARE related

imagery

45

Farah suggested that to further understand if there are shared mechanisms between perception and imagery, then the way the ____ responds to visual imagery should be investigated

brain

46

Are there dissociations between imagery and perception?

Yes

47

Neuropsychological results show that there are some ____ between imagery and perception

Dissociations

48

What is an example of the lexical decision task?

up to you?????????

49

Is there an impact of Priming on lexical decision tasks

YES

50

In the lexical decision task, words that were closer related had more spreading ____ and were easily _____

Activation; Primed

51

Kosslyn concluded that ____ representation is a shared mechanism between imagery and perception

Spatial

52

The task used in imagery experiments in which participants are asked to form a mental image of an object and to imagine that they are walking towards this mental image

Mental Walk Task?

53

What is a mental walk task used for?

The study of spatial representation

54

Participants in the ___ ___ task were asked to estimate how far away they were from an animal when they began to experience 'overflow' - or when the image filled the visual field or when its edges started becoming fuzzy

Mental walk task

55

The mental walk task was used in experiments to explain a mental images size in a visual _____

Field

56

The link between what two processes was strengthened by the mental walk task and visual field results?

Images are spatial, like perception

57

What is the main difference between the prototype and exemplar approach to categorisation

A prototype is the "average" of members of a group, while an exemplar is an actual member of the category

58

What types of groups would you use the prototype approach to categorisation?

Cheese, Balls, plates

59

What types of groups would you use the exemplar approach to categorisation?

Sports,

60

Perception and attention, Misidentifications due to Familiarity, Suggestion, and increased confidence after post event feedback are all errors in _____ testimonies

Eyewitness

61

Name some of the errors in eyewitness testimonies

.....

62

The phenoninon of 'weapons focus' is associated with which type of eyewitness testimony error?

Perception and attention

63

Level of arousal can affect the accuracy of attention and memory which could be an error in ______ testimonies

Eyewitness

64

Is familiarity a error in eyewitness testimonies?

Yes

65

Is suggestion an error in eyewitness testimonies?

yes

66

Is confidence after feedback from a lineup a error in eyewitness testamonies?

yes

67

Informing witnesses that the perpetrator might not be in the lineup, using "fillers" in the lineup similar to suspect, Using sequential presentation of suspects, improving interview techniques, and cognitive interviews are all ways to improve the accuracy of _____ testimony

eyewitness

68

Informing witnesses that the _____ might not be in the lineup, using "fillers" in the lineup similar to suspect, Using sequential presentation of suspects, improving interview techniques, and _____ interviews are all ways to improve the accuracy of eyewitness testimony

perpetrator; cognitive

69

Informing witnesses that the perpetrator might not be in the lineup, using "fillers" in the lineup similar to suspect, Using _____ presentation of suspects, improving ____techniques (blind interviewers), and cognitive interviews are all ways to improve the accuracy of eyewitness testimony

sequential; interview

70

What are the two types of lifespan memory?

Autobiographical and Prospective

71

Is autobiographical memory more episodic or semantic

episodic

72

What two types of perspectives we can view past autobiographical memories as?

Field and observer perspective

73

Prospective memory can be ___-based or ____-based

Event, Time

74

Personal milestones, Transitional points, and highly emotional states are memories that we tend to remember better over the _____

Lifespan

75

What three types of memories do we remember better than some others over the lifespan?

Personal milestones, Transitional Points, and Highly emotional states

76

The ____ bump is the reason for better memory over the lifespan of memories formed from adolescences or young adulthood

Reminiscence bump

77

The self-image hypothesis, the cultural life script hypothesis and the cognitive hypothesis are three suggestions for the phenomena of the _____ ___

Reminiscence bump

78

Experts possess more knowledge about their fields, Experts knowledge is organised differently than novices, and experts spend more time analysing problems are three suggestions that experts are better at problem solving in a field compared to ____

Novices;amatuers

79

What are the three reasons experts might be better than novices in their field?

Experts possess more knowledge about their fields, Experts knowledge is organised differently than novices, and experts spend more time analysing problems

80

What is the one disadvantage of being an expert in a filed compared to a novice?

Their expertise could make them less open to new ways of looking at problems

81

True or false: experts are only experts in their field and perform like anyone else outside of their field

true

82

While Imagery is ___ and ____, perception is ____ and ____

fragile;effortful;stable;automatic

83

What is spreading activation? how is it related to priming?

Hierarchical model: activation activates related nodes, so they are more susceptible to be primed

84

The semantic network model cannot explain the ___ ___

typicallity effect