Week 7 - 13 Final exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 7 - 13 Final exam Deck (413):
1

What is the Reminiscence Bump?

the finding that people over 40 have enhanced memory for events from adolescence and early adulthood, compared to other points in their life

1

Semantic Network Approach

Proposes that concepts are arranged in networks

1

What is Plyshyn's Imagery debate?

a debate about whether imagery is based on spatial mechanisms, or propositional mechanisms

1

Reading a list of words and non-words and saying "yes" when you read a word is an activity called a __ __ task?

Lexical decision task

1

Mental grouping of words in a sentence into phrases is called ___?

Parsing

1

Rehearsal and high emotion events can strengthen ___ memories?

Flashbulb

1

The Gestalt psychologists called the process of changing the problem’s representation: ____

Restructuring

1

The process of making choices between alternatives is are called _____

Decisions

1

Anytime we make a prediction about what will happen based on our observations about what has happened, we are using ____ reasoning

inductive

1

What perspective do you use for recent memories?

Field perspective

1

Autobiographical memory has ____, _____ and sensory components

Spatial; emotional 

1

Source monitoring errors are important because the _____ responsible for them are also involved in creating memories in general

Mechanisms

1

Prototypical objects are more susceptible to _____

Priming

1

When we replace one word with a similar word possibly with the same number of syllables is called word _____

substitution 

3

Comprehension, speech production, representation, and acquisition are the 4 major concerns of the field of ___?

Psycholinguistics

3

What type of experiment is used in studying flashbulb memories?

Repeated Recall

4

___ is the system of communication using sounds or symbols that enables us to express our feelings, thoughts, ideas, and experiences

Language

4

When people use past experience to guide behaviour, they often use ____ to help them reach conclusions rapidly

shortcuts

4

Does representativeness generally hold for small samples?

no

4

Context is very important in understanding _____

language 

4

What is Anological Encoding?

Teaching people to compare and notice source and target problem similarities 

5

Typicality effect?

Smith found that the ability to judge highly prototypical objects more rapidly

5

Typicality effect?

Smith found that the ability to judge highly prototypical objects more rapidly

6

What is the big difference between the Exemplar and Prototype approach

Prototypes are not real, but just averages. But Exemplars are actual things

6

The __ __ __ occurs when phonemes are perceived in speech when the sound of the phoneme is covered by an extraneous variable? 

Phonemic Restoration Effect

7

Things in a category resemble one another in a number of ways is known as __ __ (hint, micaly, beth, mum)

Family resemblance

7

Language is primarily used for___? 

Communication

7

An important aspect of human behaviour is the ability for two people to cooperate in a way that is beneficial to both people: this is called ____ exchange theory

Social Exchange Theory

8

A decision making stragergy that is governed by taking risks is called Risk-____ stratergy 

taking

9

Hub and Spoke Model

areas of the brain that are associated with specific functions are connected to the Anterior Temporal Lobe, which serves as a hub that integrates the information from these areas

9

Problem solving for the Gestalt Psychologists, was about 1: how people ___ a problem in their mind, and 2: how solving a problem involves a _____ or restructuring of this representation 

Represent; reorganisation

10

misinformation effect

Misleading information presented after a person witnesses an event can change how the person describes that event later

11

What is am epiphenomenon?

something that accompanies the real mechanism but not actually part of the mechanism

11

The Conjunction Rule is a characteristic of the ____ heuristic

Representativeness Heuristic

11

When the Wason Four-Card problem is stated in real world terms, performance ____

increases

12

Wittgenstein’s Family Resemblance

family resemblances refer to the idea that things in a particular category resemble one another in a number of ways

12

Good reasoning and truth (are/are not) the same thing

Are not

12

Prototypicality can be ____ or ____

high or low 

12

What are Word exchanges?

I have to put car in my petrol on the way home. 

Changing words in a sentence 

13

Family reseblance is used in what approach to categorisation?

Definitional Approach

14

The smallest units of language that has meaning or grammatical function are called ____

Morphemes

15

What are the two types of syllogisms?

Categorical and Conditional 

16

The ______ heuristic states that the probability that A is a member of class B can be determined by how well the properties of A resembles the properties usually associated with class B

Representativenss 

16

Anxious people tend to avoid making decisions that could potentially lead to large negative consequences, a respone called ___ avoidance

risk

16

The purpose of langauge is to _____ with others, and the need to ________ is strong

Communicate x2

17

The fact that some words occur more than others is know as ___ dominance 

Meaning

18

The rapid electrical respose recorded with small disc electrodes that are placed on a persons scalp is called __ __ __ (erp)

Event-related potential

18

The tendency to avoid risks is called risk ____

aversion

18

What is a phoneme exchange?

Fost instead of Frog in a sentence instead of Frost and Fog

19

The process by which people use similar grammatical construction is called __ __

Syntactic coordination

20

Deteriming where a memory, belief, or knowledge came from is known as?

Source Monitoring 

20

What area of the brain was studied to conclude that emotions influence decision making?

the prefrontal cortex

20

The tendency to think a syllogism is valid if its conclusion is beleivable is known as ____ bias

Belief

20

What does psycholinguistics study?

Comprehension;Speech production; Representation; Acquistion 

20

Do phonemes by themselves have meaning?

No

20

What are the three types of inferences in regards to understanding texts and stories?

Anaphoric; Instrumental; Causal

21

An actual memeber of a category is an ___?

Examplar

21

The two features or language are?

Language is a heirarchical system; Language is governed by rules 

21

____ can often clear up lexical ambiguity

Context 

22

Basic Principle of Connectionism?

A stimulus presented to the input units is represented by a pattern of activity that is distributed across the other units

23

What is the Definitional Approach to categorisation?

we can decide whether something is a member of a category by determining whether a particular object meets the definition of the category

24

Can context affect decision making?

Yes, this was proven by Shens physician and ceacerian experiment and Danziger's parole judges experiment

25

____- Fixedness is one type of fixation

Functional

25

The Ultimate Game involves two players, one designated as the ____ and one as the _____

Proposer; responder

26

What is mental imagery?

the ability to recreate the sensory world in the absence of physical stimuli, also occurs in senses other than vision

26

Sentences which begin to mean one thing but then end up meaning something else are called __ __ __?

Garden Path Sentences

26

If people have all of the relevant infomation, they will make a decision that results in the maximum expected utility is known as expected ____ theory

utility

27

The ___ category approach proposes that there are specific neural circuits in the brain for some specific categories

Semantic 

28

Our knowledge about what is involved in a particular experience is called a...?

Schema

28

The __-__ contract states that a speaker should construct sentences so that they include two kinds of infomation: 1 Given infomation: infomation that the listener already knows; and 2 New information: infomation that the listener is hearing for the first time

Given-new

29

Shortest segments of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of the word are called ____

Phonemes

30

Who stated that there is a average prototype of what you experience of a category but does not actually exist?

Eleanor Rosch

31

Our knowledge about words is stored in our Our knowledge about words is stored in our __?

Lexicon

32

Tversky and Kahneman concluded that when a choice is framed in gains, people use a risk ___ stratergy. When a choice is framed in losses, people use a risk ___ stratergy

Aversion; Taking

33

Source Monitoring?

the process of determining the origins of our memories, knowledge, or beliefs.

33

What is propositional representation?

relationships can be represented by abstract symbols, such as an equation, or a statement.

34

How many morphemes does bedroom have; does hattrick have; and truck have?

2;2;1

34

Phillip johnson-Laird Suggested the ____ model approach to solving whether a syllogism is right or wrong

Mental Model Approach

35

Periods of rapid change followed by stability cause memory encoding to be stronger. This is known as the ___ hypothesis?

Cognitive Hypothesis

37

What is parsing?

Mentalling grouping words in a sentence into phrases

37

Memory, or remembering what we need to do in the future is: 

  • Event based memory
  • Prospective
  • Autobiographical
  • Time-based

Prospective

38

What model associated with understanding text and stories includes: representation of events as if experiencing the situation, and point of view of the protagonist?

Situational Model

39

What are the two types of perspectives in Autobiographical Memory?

Field perspective; Observer Perspective

41

To important elements of syllogisms are ____ and truth

Validity

42

All pigeons are birds

All birds have wings

All pigeons have wings

 

Is this a valid or invalid categorical syllogism?

Valid

42

The memory of patients who have suffered brain damage that causes a loss of visual memory, but without causing blindness, illustrates the importantce of the ____ component of AM

Sensory

43

using the solution to a similar problem to guide solution of a new problem is called __ __ solving

Analogical Problem Solving

44

In regards to reading, ___ or determining what the text means by using our knowledge to go beyond the infomation provided by the text?

Inferences

44

____ has also been linked to improved memory consolidation

Emotion

45

What is Conceptual Knowledge?

knowledge that enables us to recognise objects and events and to make inferences about their properties

45

Connection weights...

determine how signals sent from one unit either increase of decrease the activity of the next unit in the line (hidden, or output)

46

What is unilateral neglect?

the patient ignores objects in one half of the visual field.

48

(Phonemes/Morphemes) refer to sounds while (Phonemes/Morphemes) refer to meaning

Phonemes; Morphemes

49

What experiment is Cheves Perky famous for?

Asking participants to mentally imagine a visual image, but actually exposed participants to a projected image (mistake actual picture to be a mental image)

50

Flashbulb Memory?

A person’s memory for the circumstances surrounding shocking, highly charged events (how a person heard about an event)

50

Newell and Simons approach (_____-_____ approach) states that problem solving involves a searh

Infomation-processing approach

52

An important property to any narrative is ___? 

Coherence

52

Restructuring is associated with ___: the sudden realisation of a problems solution

Insight

52

A person's mood can affect economic ____

Decisions

52

What two reasons make language universal?

The purpose of language is to communicate with other people; The need to communicate is strong

53

The law of large numbers is a variable in _____ heuristics 

Representativeness 

54

Source monitoring errors are also called source ______

misattributions

55

What is Transcranial Magnetic stimulation?

powerful but brief, magnetic pulse that produces temporary current in a small area of the brains surface

56

The first two statements in a syllogism are called the _____ while the last statement is called the _____

Premises; Conclusion

56

What is the goal of Means-end Analysis?

To reduce the differences between the initial and goal states

57

Schema

a person’s knowledge about some aspect of the environment

58

A prototype or a exemplar contains the most salient features of an object?

Prototype

58

When Smith used the sentence verification technique, he found that objects high in ______ were judged more rapidly 

prototypicality

58

What approach to Parsing sentences includes: Grammatical strucutre of sentences to determine parsing; Late Closure (parser assumes new word is part of the current phrase; Garden Path Model?

Syntax-First Approach to parsing 

59

_____ are best for small groups with large variation of concepts

Exemplars

60

The idea that information provided by both syntax and semantics is taken into account simultaniously as we read or listen to a sentence is called the ___ approach?

Interactionist

61

Patients which create meaningless speech that are also unable to understand speech and writing are diagnosed with ___ Apasia?

Wernicke's

62

Cognitive Economy

a feature of some semantic network models in which properties of a category that are shared by many members of a category are stored at a higher level node in the network,

63

What was important about Shepard and Metzler's mental chronometry ?

it was the first experiment to apply quantitative methods to visual imagery

63

The ___ ____ effect refers to the finding that letters are easier to recognise when they are contained in a word than when they appear alone or are contained in a non-word

Word Superiority 

65

What experimental task is the falsification principle associated with?

Wason's Four-Card Problem

66

Slow, laboured, ungrammatical speech caused by damage to Broca's area is called __ __?

Broca's Aphasia

67

The process by which two problems are compared and similarites between them are determined is called ___ coding?

Analogical

67

Who posited that human language coded in the genes and that the  underlying basis of all language is similar?

Noam Chomsky

67

____ ____ are that events more easily remembered are judged as more probalbe than those harder to remember

Availibility Heuristic

68

Inferences that connect an object or person in one sentence to an object or person in another sentence are called ___ inferences?

Anaphoric inferences

69

The _____-____ hypothesis stats that our ability to differentiate livings things and artifacts depends on a semantic memory system that distinguishes sensory attributes and a system that distinguishes function 

sensory-functional hypothesis

70

Periods of rapid change followed by stability cause memory encoding to be stronger....this lifespan hypothesis of memory is the??

Cognitive hypothesis

72

Which level is psychologically special to Rosch

The basic Level

73

Phonemic restoration, words isolated from conversational speech, speech segmentation and word superiority are all effects which emphasies the ___ in our perception.?

Context

74

  What are the advantages of constructing memory?

Understanding languagel Fill in the blanks; Solve problems; Make decisions 

76

Skinner proposed in "Verbal Behaviour" that language is learned through ___?

Reinforcement

77

The principle of __ __ states that when a person encounters a new word, the person's parsing mechanism assumes that this word is part of the current phrase, so each new word is added to the current phrase for as long as possible?

Late closure

77

The result of Kremer's experiemnt show that the inability to correctly ____ the emotional outcome of a decision can lead to inefficient decision making

Predict

78

What is an exemplar?

Actual member of a category that a person has encountered in the past

80

Are some events in a human life going to be remembered more than others?

Yes

81

What are the building blocks of words?

Morphemes and Phonemes

81

Focusing on familiar functions or uses of an object is called ____-fixedness?

Functional

82

The rules for combining words into sentences is called ___?

Syntax

84

Inferences about tools or methods are called ___ inferences?

Instrument inferences

85

More than one possible structure or meaning in sentence, which is caused when there are multiple ways of parsing, this is called ____ ____ 

Syntactic Ambiguity 

86

The __ __ effect refers to the finding that letters are easier to recognise when they are contained in a word than when they appear alone or are contained in a nonword?

word superiority 

88

The two properties of language - __ and __ endow humans with the ability to go far beyond the fixed calls and signs of animals to communicate whatver we want to express

a heirarchical structure; rules

90

Greenberg and Rubin found that patients who had lost their ability to recognize objects or to visualise objects, because of damage to visual areas of the cortex, also expereiend loss of ___

Autobiographical Memory?

90

_____ of observations, _____ of observations, and ____ of observations all affect the stregnth of an inductive argument

Representativenss; Number; Qualitiy 

92

One of the basic priniciples behind the mental model of reasoning is that: a conclusion is valid only if it cannot be _____ by any model of the premises

Refuted

93

Examplar approach to categorisation is used (in initial/ in later) (small/large groups) categorisation, while Prototype appoach is used (in initial/in later) categorisation with (small/large) groups

Initial/smaller groups; Later/Larger groups

93

Lynn Frazier' s __-__ approach to parsing proposed that as people read a sentence, their grouping of words into phrases is goverend by a number of rules that are based on syntax 

Syntax-first

94

One type of syllogism called modus ponens is latin for: the way that affirms by ______

Affirming 

95

A syllogism that is valid indicates that its conclusion follows ___ from its two premises 

logically

96

While the ______ heuristic is related to how often we expect events to occur, the ______ heuristic is realted ot the idea that people often make judgments based on how much one event resembles another event

Availability; Representativeness

97

What is Tacit knowledge explanation?

it states that subjects unconsciously use knowledge about the world making their judgements

98

Four proposals of how concepts are represented in the brain

The sensory-functional hypothesis, The semantic category approach, The multiple-factor approach, The embodied approach

98

The process of connecting objects/people is called 

Anaphorics

99

____ four-card problem is a conditional reasoning task that involves 4 cards

Wason's 

100

Newell and Simon (1972) saw problems in terms of an ___ state: conditions at the beginning of the problem, and a ___ state: the solution of the problem

Initial; Goal

101

What are semantics?

The meaning or words and sentences

102

When words have two or more meanings it is known as __ dominance?

Biased

103

If something is high in prototypicality, then it has (low/high) family resemblance?

High

104

Personal ____ have also been related to decision making

qualities

104

A syllogisms form determines its 

Validity

104

The _____ approach to categories in the brain states that our knowledge of concepts is based on reactivation of sensory and motor processes that occur when we interact with the object 

Embodied 

106

The tendency for people to generate and evaluate evidence and test their hypotheses in a way that is biased toward their own opinions and attitudes is called the ____ bias

myside

107

Retroactive interference and source monitoring errors are two proposed explanations of the phenomenon of ___ ___

False memory

107

Making a compartison in order to show a similarity between two different things is called an ___?

Analogy

108

Semantics can influence processing as we read a sentence is suggested by the ____ approach?

Interactionist

109

Reasoning based on obeservations, or reaching conclusions from evidence is called ____ reasoning

inductive

111

Availiability heuristic, Illusory correlation, Representatiness heuristic, Base rate, Conjunction rule, Law of Large Numbers, Myside bias, and confirmation bias are all potential sources of error in making ____ 

Judgments 

113

Illusory ____ occur when we expect two things to be related, so we fool ourselves into thinking they are related when they are not

correlations 

114

Things in a category resemble one another in a number of ways: this is known as...

Famility resemblance

116

Informing witness' that perpertrator might not be in the lineup, Use fillers in lineup similar to suspect, use sequential presentation, and improving interviewing techniques (cognitive interviews, blind interviewers) are all ways to improve the accuracy of __ __? 

Eye witness testimonies

117

____ refers to outcomes that achieve a person's goals

utility

118

____ are often association with "special events" that are consolidated in memory

Emotions

119

Reading a sentence leads us to expect something not explicitly stated is reffered to?

Pragmatic inference

120

The tendency to make decisions that avoid risk is called Risk ____

Aversion

121

Which level is psychologically special to Rosch

The basic Level

121

The ____ rate is the relevant proportion of different classes in the population

base rate

123

Research shows that  people are often better at judging the validity of syllogisms when real-world ___ are substituted for abstract symbols

examples

123

The experiement involving "I am" statements and identity was used to posit what lifespan memory hypothesis?

Self-Image Hypothesis 

124

Our knowledge, Experience, and Expectations all effect the ____ nature of _____

Constructive; Memory

125

Out of Gicks and Holyoak's analogous theory of Noticing, Mapping, and Applying. Which is the hardest?

Noticing

127

Cultural expectations for when major life events occur provide a structure which makes recall easier. This is called the __ __-__ hypothesis

Cultural life-script hypothesis

128

The process of drawing conclusions is called ____

Reasoning

129

(well-defined/ill-defined) problems usually have a correct answer, and applying certain procedures leads to a solution (math problems etc.); (well-defined/ill-defined) occur frequently, do not necessarily have one ‘correct’ answer.

Well-Defined/Ill-Defined

129

The idea that the words all, some or no create a mood or atmosphere that affects judgement of conclusion is called the _____ effect

atmosphere 

130

words all, some, no create a mood or atmosphere that affects judgement of conclusion is known as the ____ effect

Atmosphere

132

Basic Principle of Connectionism?

A stimulus presented to the input units is represented by a pattern of activity that is distributed across the other units

133

Inferences that events described in one clause or sentence were caused by events that occurred in a precious sentence are called ___ inferences?

Causal

134

What approach to categorisation takes into account 'atypical' members of a category?

Exemplar approach

136

The solution if often unclear in a (well-defined/ill-defined) problem

Ill-defined

136

One of the characteristics of inductive reasoning is that conclusions we reach are ___, but not definately true

probably 

137

The probability of a conjunction of two events (A and B) cannot be higher than the probabiliy of the single constituents (A alone of B alone) is known as the ____ rule

Conjuction Rule

138

The premises of ____ _____ are based on observations and we generalise from these cases to more general conclusions with varying degress of certainty

Inductive Reasoning

140

Explain Wason's Four-Card Problem

>>>>

141

What are Kreiman's Imagery Neurons?

A type of category-specific neutron that is activated by imagery

143

 Researchers focus on __ and __ of __ as the two main aspects of speech errors

Frequency and Patters of errors

144

Rimmele found that ____ can increase general memory but decrease memory for _____

emotion; details 

146

A standard representation of a category (average member of a category) is a ___?

Prototype

147

What is the cognitive economy?

Shared properties stored at higher level node, exceptions at lower level nodes

149

Determining category membership based on whether the object meets the definition of the category is known as the ___ ___?

Defitional approah

150

A mental representation of what a text is about is involed in what model associated with understanding text and stories?

Situational Model:

151

How many words on average does an adult know?

50,000

153

Making inferences, creating situation models, link between action words and brain activity, and prediction based on knowledge of a situation are all aids in helping us understand ___ and ___?

Texts, and stories

154

_____ are named first, identified more quickly, and are more susceptible to priming

Prototypes

155

Wittgenstein’s Family Resemblance

family resemblances refer to the idea that things in a particular category resemble one another in a number of ways

157

The frequency in which a word appears in a language is called __ __?

Word frequency

158

_____ inference occurs when reading a sentence leads a person to expect something that is not explicitly stated of implied by the sentence

Pragmatic

160

Newell and Simon described problem solving as a ___ that occurs between the posing of the problem and its solution

Search

161

What is the image thought debate?

the debate about whether thought it possible in the absence of images

163

The approach that combines research from the fields of psychology, neuroscience, and economics to study how brain activation is related to decisions that involves potential gains and losses is called _____

Neuroeconomics

164

The frequency of a word and lexical ambiguity affect how we ___ words

understand

166

What are two characteristics of AM?

1: it is multidimensional 2: we remember some events better than others

167

What is the exemplar approach?

involves determining whether an object is similar to other objects, however the standard for the exemplar approach involves many examples, each one called an exemplar

168

Our (Target/Source) problem is the problem with have previously confronted in the past; Our (Target/Source) problem is the current problem

Source;Target

170

What two explanations have been proposed for the misinformation effect?

Retroactive interference, and source monitoring

171

People who have damage to the prefrontal cortex have imparied ____ making skills 

decision 

172

____ ____ is the production of a specific grammatical construction by one person increases chances other people will use that same construction

Syntactic Priming 

173

Transferring experience in solving one problem to the solution of another, similar problem is called ___ transfer?

Analogical

175

What is a psychological concept?

the mental representation of a class or individual

176

Newells and Simon: problem solving involves a ___

Search

177

The __ __ effect refers to the fact that we respond more rapidly to high-frequency words than to low frequency words?

Word frequency 

178

Conversations go more smoothly when the participants bring ___ knowledge.

Shared

178

What are the four barriers to problem solving?

Irrelevant or Misleading Infomation; Assumptions; Mental Sets; Functional Fixedness 

180

Lerner's Highlighter experiement suggested that digust is associated with the need to ____ things while sad emotions are associated with a need for _____

Expel; Change

182

Memories are created by a process of?

Construction

182

The N is N400 and P in P600 stand for ...?

Negative and Positive

184

_____ correlations occur when a correlation between two events appears to exist, but in realitiy there is no correlation or it is much weaker than it is assumed to be

Illusory correlation

185

understanding language, filling in the blanks, solving problems, and making decisions are all advantages of __ __?

Constructive memory

186

The Gestalt approach states that success in solving a problem is influenced by how it is ___ in the person’s mind

Represented 

187

____ syllogism typically use p and q instead of A and B like _____ syllogisms

Conditional; Categorical

188

Making judgements, making decisions and ____ are all interrelated 

reasoning

189

Lexicon is.....

all the words a person understands

190

Michael ___ (1995) developed the visual world paradigm?

Tanenhaus

192

Hearing a statement with a particular syntactic construction increases the chances that a sentence will be produced with the same construction is a phenomenon known as ___ ___?

syntactic priming

193

Chomsky beleived that languged was coded into human ___?

Genes

195

The ___ of in which we hear about letters or words affects our perception of them, also the ___ we bring into the context also affects our perception?

Context; Knowledge

197

One type of syllogism called modus tollens means: the way that denies by ____

Denying 

199

What is Plyshyn's Imagery debate?

a debate about whether imagery is based on spatial mechanisms, or propositional mechanisms

201

Is a Modus Tollens syllogism valid?

Yes

202

What is am epiphenomenon?

something that accompanies the real mechanism but not actually part of the mechanism

203

People's judgements are affected by the way ____ are stated

Choices

204

syllogism is seen to be valid when the conclusion concurs with our beliefs ; this is known as the ____ bias

Belief Bias

205

Noninsight problems (involve/do not involve) a more methodical process than insight problems

Involve; Yes they are more methodial

205

Representativeness of observations, number of observations, and quality of the evidence all contribute to the stregnth of an ___ argument

inductive

205

____ memory dominates autobiographical memory

Episodic 

207

What are the two main properties of sentences?

Syntax and Semantics

208

Determining whether a conclusion logically flows from a statements called premises is known as ____ reasoning

Deductive

209

"rules of thumb" that are likely to provide the correct answer to a problem but are not foolproof are known as ____

Heuristics 

210

The ___ lobe is the home of Broca's area

Frontal

211

Cognitive Hypothesis

that periods of rapid change that are followed by stability cause stronger encoding of memories

212

What field studies psychological processes by which humans acquire and process language?

Psycholinguistics

213

The tendency to do nothing when faced with a decision is called the ___ ___ bias 

Status quo bias

215

Can emotions play a role in decision making?

Yes

217

The knowledge, attitudes, and preconceptions alongside heuristics that people bring to a situation influence ____

Judgment

218

Does categorical or conditional syllogisms start with 'if'?

conditional

219

What three things affect the remembering of flashbulb memory?

Emotions, Rehersal, Media 

221

The ___-___ ____ proposes that memory is enchanced for events that occur as a person's self-image or life identity is being formed

Self-Image Hypothesis

222

what three factors effect Flashbulb Memory?

Emotion, Media, Rehearsal

223

What are Kreiman's Imagery Neurons?

A type of category-specific neutron that is activated by imagery

224

P is the _____ and q is the _____ in a conditional syllogism?

Antecedent; Consequent 

225

The probability that event A comes from class B can be determined by how well A resembles properties of B, this is called the ___ ___

representativeness heuristic 

227

Cultural life script hypothesis

The idea that events in a person’s life story become easier to recall when they fit the cultural life script for that person’s culture

228

Determining where we acquired a memory, knowledge or belief is known as ____ ____

Source Monitoring

229

What reduces the conceptual load in conversations?

Syntactic Priming

230

Factors of real world knowledge that affect memory

Schemas and scripts, Making Inference, False recall and Recognition

231

What is the given new contract?

Speaker constructs sentences so they include: given infomation; new infomation; and new can then become given information 

231

If A is satisfied, then B can be carried out...this is an example of a ____ ____

Permission Schema

233

The existence of multiple word meanings is called __ __?

Lexical ambiguity

235

Errors are not random, there are patterns/rules involved; This is proposed by somthing called __ of __?

patterns of errors

237

Premises and conclusions that all start with all, no, or some are called _____ syllogisms

Categorical

238

If both preimises are true the ____ will be true as well

Conclusion

239

Neisser's Narrative Rehearsal Hypothesis

That we remember some live events better because we rehearse them

240

What brain structure is involved in the emotional recall of memory?

Amygdala

241

The _____ heuristics states that events that are more easily remembered are judged as being more porbable than events that are elss easily remembered 

Availability heuristic

242

Our knowledge about a sequence of actions that occur in a particular experience is called a...?

Script

243

When words are taken out of context and presented alone are they harder or easier to understand?

Harder; more difficult

245

Decisions are influenced by how the choices are stated or framed is called the ____ effect

framing

246

How our knowledge of the meaning of words effects our speech perception is another example of __ __ Processing?

`Top-Down

247

Our ability to percieve words even though there are often no pauses between words in the sound signal is called __ __?

Speech segmentation 

248

A ____ is an oversimplified generalisation about a group or class of people that often focuses on the negative 

stereotype

249

What is the Word Superiority Effect?

refers to the finding that letters are easier to recognise when they are contained in a word than when they appear alone or are contained in a non-word

250

The idea that people can ____ situations is the basis of Johnson-Laird's proposal that people use the mental model to solve deductive reasoning problems

Imagine

251

Who applied mental scanning?

Stephen Kosslyn

252

Event based memory and time-based memory are both types of ___ memory?

Prospective

253

The "own-photos" in Cabeza's study caused more activation in what areas of the brain?

Prefrontal Cortex; Hippocampus

254

___ fixedness; ___ sets; Irrelevant or ____ infomations; and assumptions are four barriers to problem solving

Functional; Mental; Misleading

255

____ neurons are neurons that fire when we do a task or when we observe another doing that same task

Mirror 

257

What was important about Shepard and Metzler's mental chronometry ?

it was the first experiment to apply quantitative methods to visual imagery

258

 What approach uses a standard representation of a category? or an 'average'?

the prototype approach

259

Familiarity, Arousal, Attention, Suggest, and confidence are all factors that effect __ __?

Eye witness testimonies

260

What are the two approaches to parsing?

The Syntax-First Approach; The Interactionist Approach

262

Uri Simonsohn's "clouds make nerds look good" found that applicants academic attributes were more heavily weighted on (Sunny/Cloudy) days than on (Sunny/Cloudy) days

Cloudy/Sunny

264

A large representative sample of utterances or written text from a particular language is called a ___?

Corpus

265

Rosch stated that prototypicality could be; high; low; or both?

Both

266

There is a strong relationship with protoypicality and ___ ___

Family resemblance

267

How well do the observations about a particular category represent all of the members of a category  is known as Representativeness of ____

observations

268

What are the three distinct steps of Anological Problem Solving?

Noticing; Mapping; Applying

270

_____ syllogisms have two premises and a conclusion like categorical syllogisms, but the first premise has the form "if....then"

Conditional

272

Determining whether a conclusion logically flows from a statements called ____ is known as deductive reasoning

Premises

274

_____ are created by a process of construction, which is based on what actually happened combined with other things that have happened and out general knowledge about how things usually happen 

Memories 

276

What is an exemplar?

Actual member of a category that a person has encountered in the past

278

A ____ occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal and it is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle

Problem

279

_____ syllogisms describe a relationship using the words all, no, or some

Categorical syllogisms 

281

The speaker's mutual knowledge, beliefs, and assumptions are know as __ __

Common ground

283

Can emotions that are not even related to making the decision affect a decision?

Yes

284

We are better at judging the validity of syllogisms when they are real ____ syllogism

World 

286

Psycholinguistics?

The field of psychology concerned with the psychological study of language

287

The __ __ paradigm involves determinging how subjects process infomation as they are observing a visual scene

Visual word paradigm

289

When a word has more than one meaning but the meanings have about the same dominance is called ___ dominance?

Balanced

290

Our ___ ___ schemas are our way of thinking about cause and effect in the world (we learn from it every day). 

Pragmatic Reasoning Schemas 

291

What is Paivio's Conceptual peg hypothesis?

concrete nouns create images that other words can “hang onto”

292

What are the two types of perspecitive when remembering the past?

Field and Observer perspective

293

The role of parsing is determining the ___ of a sentence?

Meaning

294

The ____ approach to categorisation states that our knowledge of concepts is based on reactivation of sensory and motor processes that occur when we interact with that object

Embodied Approach 

295

Language makes it possible to create new sentences because is has a structure that is ____ and goverend by ___

Heirarchical; rules

296

______ coordination amongst speakers is using similar grammatical constructions

Syntactic 

298

___ is the representation of the text in a person's mind so that information in one part of the text is related to information in another part of the text?

Coherence

298

The way a ____ is presented is also important when a person is forced to pick one alternative or another

Choice

299

Which subbranch of psychologists first introduced the study of problem solving to psychology?

Gestalt Psychologists

301

Two types of lifespan memory

Autobiographical memory and prospective memory

302

One component of Means-End Analysis- subgoals- creates _____ states closer to the goal

intermediate 

303

Misleading infomation presented after a person witnesses an event can change how that person describes the event later. This is known as?

The misinfomation effect

304

 The technique of comparing later memories to memries collected immediatly after the event is called ___ ___

Repeated Recall

305

The most common form of language production is ___?

Conversation

306

What is Autobiographical memory?

Memory for specific events that can include semantic and episodic components

307

One of the most powerful effects of emotion on decision making involves ____ emotions

expected

308

A Opt-__ procedure is where a person must take an active step to choose a course of action 

Opt-In

309

According to Newell and Simon, ____ are actions that take the problem from one state to another

Operators

310

The field of psychology concerned with the pscyhological study of language is ___?

Psycholinguistics

312

Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman (1974) studied the representativenss ____

Heuristic

314

The cognitive hypothesis of the reminscent bump found that emmigrants to America that emmigrated at age 20-24, their reminiscent bump occured at a _____ age, but emmigrants that emmigrated at age 34-35, their reminiscent bump occured at a ____ age

Normal; Later

315

Mental set can influence problem solving both because of preconceptions about the ____ of an object, and because of preconceptions about the way to ___ a problem

functions; solve

317

How many proposed systems are there in the Dual Systems Approach

Two: system 1 and system 2 

318

Frequency and Patterns of error are the two errors of ____

Speech 

320

When you replace one word with a similar word possible with the same number of syllables is called __ __

Word substitution

321

Is language universal?

yes, it occurs wherever there are people

322

How a problem is ___ can affect its difficulty

stated

323

The myside bias is a type of ____ bias

Confirmation 

324

If a person satisfies a specific condition (being of legal drinking age), then he or she gets to carry out an action (being served alcohol) this is know as a ____ schema 

Permission

326

___ exchanges and ___ exchanges are two common types of speech errors

Phoneme and word

327

_____ reasoning is the basis of scientific investigations in which observations are made

inductive

328

 What approach to categorisation would you be using if the details were: tall, green, leaves, branches?

The definitional approach to categorisation

329

Personal milestones, Transitional points, and Highly emotional states are things that we (do/do not) remember well (the best) ?

Do. We remember these very well

330

people’s tendency to focus on a specific characteristic of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution is called ___?

Fixation

332

what is the Prototype approach?

membership in a category is determined by comparing the object to a prototype that represents the category

333

Protoypical objects are ____ first, _____ more quickly (typicality effect), and more susceptible to _____

Named; Identified; priming 

334

Noticing, ____ and Applying were the three phases of analogous thinking proposed by Gick and Holyoak

Mapping

335

The given-new contract, common ground, and syntactic coordination are all aids in ___

Conversations

336

Brocas area has been linked to: 

  1. Syntax 
  2. Semantics
  3. Occipetal lobe
  4. Language production?

 

Syntax

337

The filling in of phonemes based on context of sentence and portion of word presented is called?

The phonemic restoration effect

338

Thus, __ __ is determined both by people's expertise and by the exchange of information during the coversation?

Common ground

339

Pragmatic inference

when reading a sentence leads a person to expect something that is not explicitly stated or implied by the sentence

340

Syntax and Semantics are the two main properties of ___?

Sentences

341

What are the two heuristics in inductive reasoning?

Availibility and Representativeness Heuristics 

343

The ___ lobe is home to Wernicke's area

Temporal

344

Cognitive Economy

a feature of some semantic network models in which properties of a category that are shared by many members of a category are stored at a higher level node in the network,

345

The basic principle behind ____ models is that people create a model, or representation of the situation, for a reasoning problem

Mental Models

346

_____ approach is best for large groups with not much variation in regards to concepts

prototype

347

What is visual imagery?

seeing in the absence of a visual stimulus

348

Infomation in any situation is favoured that confrims the individuals hypothesis is called _____ bias

confirmation

350

Wernickes' Area has been linked to: 

  1. Syntax
  2. Parsing
  3. Semantics
  4. Cerrebellum

Semantics

352

"to test a rule, it is necessary to look for situations that would falsify the rule" this is known as the _____ principle

Falsification principle 

353

What is a prototype?

A typical member of a category

354

Stronger evidence results in stronger _____

conclusions

355

The ____ heuristic can mislead us into reaching the wrong conclusion when less frequently occuring events stand out in our memory 

availability 

356

What is the major obstacle of problem solving according to Gestalt psychologists?

Fixation

357

All students are studying

Some studying are working

All students are working

 

Is this a valid or invalid syllogism

invalid

358

What is unilateral neglect?

the patient ignores objects in one half of the visual field.

359

Language influences thought is posited by the ___-___ hypothesis

Sapir-Whorf

360

What can removing part of the visual cortex result in?

a reduction of what we can see in our visual field

361

Being faced with a more difficult decision can lead to making ___ decision at all

No

362

Concepts are arranged in networks that represent the way concepts are arranged in the mind which involves cognitive economy (shared properties stored at higher level node, expectations at lower nodes) is knows as the __ __ model

Semantic Network 

363

Using a solution to a similar problem guides solution to a new problem is called ____ _____ solving

Analogical Problem Solving

364

We experience the major events associated with our self-image during the period of 10 - 30 is known as the __-__ hypothesis?

Self-Image

365

Aristotle created the most basic form of deductive reasoning called the ____

Syllgogism

366

Herbert Clark sees ___ as being central to the understanding of language?

Collaboration

368

The process of noticing connections between similar problems and applying the solution for one problem to other problems is called the method of ____?

Analogy

369

The ____-____ approach to catergorisation states that concepts are represented in the brain by searching for multiple factors that determine how concepts are divided up within a category

Multiple-Factors Approach 

370

Syllogisms always contain at least ____ statements

Three

371

 The cognitive process of starting with infomation and coming to conclusions that go beyond that infomation is called _____

Reasoning

372

___ experience plays an important role in AM

Visual 

373

What allows us to not be overwhelmed by responding to the almost infinite variety of objects, events, people and impressions in our environment?

Categories

374

One of the primary mechanisms involved in judgements is ____ reasoning

inductive

375

Expected emotions are one of the determinants of ___ aversion

risk

377

The nature of a cultures language can affect the way people think is know as the ___-___ hypothesis

Sapir-Whorf

378

___ ambiguity is when there are more than one possible structure or meaning in a sentence

Syntactic 

379

What experiment is Cheves Perky famous for?

Asking participants to mentally imagine a visual image, but actually exposed participants to a projected image

380

A ____ model is a specific situation represented in a person's mind that can be used to help determine the validity of syllogisms in deductive reasoning

Mental Model

381

 A __ model is a mental representation of what a text is about (Johnson-Laird, 1983)?

Situation

382

Are surface or structual features more helpful?

Structual Features

383

Corpara is the plural of __? 

Corpus

384

Who were the two authors in the 1950s which started recent research into language?

Noam Chomsky; B.F. Skinner 

386

Three levels of of categories

1 Superordinate (Global), The basic level, The subordinate (specific)

387

Are high prototypicality objects more susceptible to priming?

Yes

388

What is a category?

Includes all possible examples of a particular concept

389

The idea that semantics can influence processing as we read a sentence (its not all about syntax) is part of what approach to parsing?

Interactionist 

390

Sanfey's ultimate game experiment is just one example of the _____ approach to decision making

Neuroeconomics approach

391

The first items of a category to be recalled would be A) high prototypicality objects, B) low prototypicality objects

A) high

392

The larger the number of individuals that are drawn randomly from the population, the more representative the resulting group will be of the entire population is knows at the ___ of ____ ____

Law of Large Numbers

393

Script

our conception of the sequence of actions that usually occurs during a particular experience

394

Brain activity plays a causal role in ___ and perception 

Imagery 

396

If your conditional syllogism is either affirming the antecedant or denying the consequent is it valid or invalid?

Valid

397

What is mental scanning?

subjects create mental images and then scan them in their minds

398

Is the syllogism modus ponens valid?

Yes

399

Constructive Nature of Memory?

what people report as memories are constructed based on what actually happened plus additional factors, such as a person’s knowledge, experiences, and expectations

401

What is a fairly new way to study decision making?

Neuroeconimics

402

Emotions that are not caused by having to make a decision are called _____ emotions

Incidental

403

Mistaking the source of a memory is known as?

Source monitoring error

404

What is reasoning?

The cognitive process of starting with infomation and coming to conclusiosn that go beyond that infomation

405

A preconceived notion about how to approach a problem, which is determined by a person’s experience or what has worked in the past is called a ___ set

Mental

406

What are the components of the Problem Space

Initial state; Intermediate state; Goal state

407

The underlying principle that governs the solution is called the ____ feature

Structural

408

An Opt-out procedure is where a person must take an active step to avoid a course of action 

Opt-out

409

Emotions that people predict they will feel for a particular outcome are called ____ emotions

expected

410

What is Connectionism?

creating computer models for representing cognitive processes

411

The father of deductive reasoning was ____

Aristotle

412

What is the self-image hypothesis?

that memory is enhanced for events that occur as a person’s self-image or life identity is being formed

413

One role of __ is to create connections between parts of a story?

inferences