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Flashcards in Shoulder Deck (22):






This is a slender muscle with only one head.

Origin - The bottom part of the muscle splits into two tendons. These tendons insert next to each other
on the inside of the radius and the ulna just underneath the elbow joint.

Insertion - On the bony piece on the front of the lower end of the scapula

Action - Flexes elbow joint and extends shoulder joint


Deltoid muscleO, I, A

This muscle is a superficial muscle that has two portions. The front portion which is
wider and arises from the scapulars spine and the acromial portion which is smaller and
tapers at both ends.

Origin - Acromial - acromion at the bottom end of the scapulars spine.
Spinal – scapulars spine

Insertion - On the outside of the humerus a third of the way down.

Action - Makes shoulder joint flex and pulls the foreleg away from the dog’s body


Infraspinatus muscle O, I, A

Contributes to the shoulders Form and shape.

Origin - outer top part of the scapula (infraspinous fossa).

Insertion - Into the outer side of the greater tubericle of the humerus.

Action - extend or flex shoulder joint, abduct shoulder, rotate arm laterally
and stabilize the shoulder joint.


Supraspinatus muscle O, I, A

Creates the form of the front shoulder

Origin - Top outer part of scapula

Insertion - with a thick tendon on greater tubericle of humerus

Action - Extends and stabilises shoulder joint


Brachiocephalicus muscle O, I, A

Has one insertion but hen splits into two thereafter.

Origin - Cleidocerphalicus - middle of the back of the front half of the neck
Cleidomastoid - Bottom of the skull behind the ear hole.

Instertion - Verticaly on the front of the humerus and its lower half.

Action - Pulls head forwards and neck and head down and to one side.


Splenius Muscle O, I, A

Adds to fleshy part of the dogs neck

Origin - Nuchal ligaments cord and tops of the spines of V3, V4, V5

Insertion - 5 points
1. Back of the skull (middle and top to mastoid process)
2. V1
3. V3
4. V4
5. V5

Action - both muscles together move neck up and head forward
One muscle moves neck to one side.


Sternocephalicus muscle O, I, A

Both sides fo body

Origin - manubrium (sternum)
Insertion - upper edge of the back end of the skull.
Bottom of the skull behind the mastoid process

Action and function - Muscles together move head up and down in a nod. One at a time move head to one side.


Rhomboideus muscle O, I, A

Thick muscle that has four sides and a very pointy front end.
Has two parts (neck and Chest) but is one muscle

Origin - V2, T6 and back of the skull.

Insertion - upper edge of the shoulderblade

Action - pulls top of shoulder up forwards and towards the body.
When shoulder is still it can lift the neck.


Omotransversarius muscle O, I, A

Thick full muscle that begins in the neck.

Origin - lower end and side of V1

Insertion - Bottom of scapulars spine and deltoids surface. 

Action - when limb is fixed and still pulls neck to the side. When neck is fixed and still pulls limb forward.


Triceps Brachii muscle

This muscle is a big fleshy superficial muscle that has three heads, two long
heads and one lateral head.

Origin - Long head – on the rear edge of the scapula from the lower part until two thirds up.
Lateral Head – on the humerus’s curved ridge on upper and outer surface.

Insetion - At the humerus on the top and side of the olecranon (elbows point)

Action - Long Head – Flexes the shoulder joint and extends the elbow joint
Lateral Head – only extends the elbow joint


Latissimus Dorsi muscle O, I, A

A superficial muscle. It is a large thin muscle that is
triangular in shape.

Origin - On the Top of the spines muscles starting at the top of the shoulder to the tips of the lumbar
vertebrae as well as from the last two or three ribs.

Insertion - On the nearest middle part of the humerus.

Action - pulls leg backwards


Pectoralis Descendens muscle O, I, A

Origin - On the sternums front end

Insertion - In the middle of the front of the humerus, it inserts on the short vertical line. 

Action - Advances forelimb and pulls the forelimb to the center of the body


Pectoralis Transversus Muscle O, I, A

Is a flat and rectangular shaped muscle.

Origin - It starts at the front portion of the sternum and goes down to the level where the fourth rib is.

Insertion - It inserts in a line that runs down most of the front of the humerus. 

Action - Pulls forelimb towards the middle line of the body


Pectoralis Profundus O, I, A

Origin - On the majority of the sternum (not the front tip) and from the surface of the front part of the abdomen where the xiphoid process is. 

Insertion - On the top inside surface of the humerus, and vertically from the upper third till the upper half of the front of the humerus.

Action - adducts foreleg and moves it backwards with movement


Trapezius Muscle O, I, A

triangular shaped superficial muscle. It is divided into two smaller triangular shaped muscles by a by a thin tendinous area

Origin - On the Middle of the bottom section of the back of the neck and the front section of the thorax starting at the third neck vertebra and ending at the ninth thoracic vertebra.

Insertion - Neck - top three fourths of the scapulars spine
Thoracic – top one third of the scapulars spine

Action - Draws scapula up, backward and forward and lifts neck


Longissimus Dorsi Muscle O,I,A

it is the biggest and longest muscle in spine

Origin - On the inside of the deep surface of the ilium’s pelvic wing and its crest, also on the top bonny bits of the spinous process in the lumbar vertebrae.

Insertion - On the upper ends of all the ribs, the sides of all the thoracic and all the lumbar vertebrae, and on the side of the sixth neck vertebrae.

Action - Stretches and straightens back and loins, lateral flexion


Serratus Ventralis Muscle O, I, A

A deep layer muscle that is divided into two portions The Neck portion and the Chest portion.

Origin - Neck - On the sides of third or the fourth vertebrae down to the seventh vertebrae.

Chest – On the sides of the lower parts of the first eight or nine ribs of the dog.

Insertion - Deep surface of the top half of the scapula.

Action - Pulls the top of the shoulder blade forwards, lifts and bends (neck)
Pulls shoulder blade back and down and rotates the blade (chest)


Normal canine shoulder landmarks 

Right= lateral rad

Left = caudocranial


Normal canine shoulder with attachment sites. What are the 2 ligaments and 1 tendon?

Lateral rad- note margin of joint capsule


Normal canine should with attachment sites for muscles and tendons

Lateral rad


Dog body references


thorax carriage muscles