Shoulder and Hip Joints Flashcards Preview

NLM1 Anatomy > Shoulder and Hip Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Shoulder and Hip Joints Deck (21):

Classify the glenohumeral joint. What movements can it perform?

Synovial ball and socket. Flex/extension, ab/adduction, lateral/medial rotation.


What is the most common direction of dislocation of the GH joint?



What are the articular surfaces of the GH joint?

Glenoid fossa and head of humerus.


What is the function of the glenoid labrum?

Deepen the glenoid fossa.


The fibrous capsule forms a cylindrical sleeve between the scapula and humerus. Is it loose or tight?



What travels in the opening in the anterior surface of the joint capsule of the GH joint?

Long head of biceps tendon.


What is the name of the ligament that covers this opening, and where does it attach?

Transverse humeral ligament. Between greater and lesser tuberosity of humerus.


Name the 3 ligaments that strengthen the GH joint.

Glenohumeral, coracohumeral and coracoacromial ligaments. However, the rotator cuffs are more important in stabilising the GH joint.


What are the rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder?

Teres Minor, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, subscapularis.


What structure is formed by the coracoacromial ligament, and what does this structure do?

Superior fibro-osseous arch. Prevents superior displacement of the humerus.


What is the function of bursae?

cushion to reduce friction between structures. They commonly lie between muscles/tendons and bone.


What is the main bursa of the shoulder region, and where does it lie?

Subdeltoid. Separates deltoid + coracoacromial arch from supraspinatus tendon and GH joint.


What nerves innervate the GH joint?

Articular branches from suprascapular, axillary, subscapular, lateral pectoral and musculocutaneous nerves.


Name 3 sources of pain from the shoulder region.

1) Injury/inflammation to the shoulder joint.
2) tendonitis/bursitis (inflammation of supraspinatus /subdeltoid bursa) Due to osteophytes/microtrauma.
3) referred pain. e.g. from pleura due to phrenic nerve.


What forms the acetabulum?

Ischium, ilium and pubis


Describe the acetabulum

articular portion (with hyaline cartilage) surrounds the acetabular fossa (a non articular portion containing a fat pad).


What is the acetabular notch?

Where the acetabulum is deficient inferiorly. This is closed by the transverse ligament.


Is the fibrocartilage capsule of the iliofemoral joint tight or loose?

Tight. It forms a sleeve around the neck of femur and hip joint. It is strengthened by muscles and ligaments.


Name the 3 main ligaments that stabilise the hip joint.

Iliofemoral, ischiofemoral and pubofemoral ligaments.
All 3 become relaxed on flexion and taught on extension, which maximises stability when standing.


Which nerves innervate the hip joint?

Femoral, obturator, sciatic and superior gluteal nerves.


Name 4 anatomically relevant pathologies of the Hip

1) Fractured NoF. Common in elderly. Possible avascular necrosis.
2) Congenital Hip dysplasia. abnormal hip development --> instability of hip joint. More easily dislocated.
3) Slipped femoral capital epiphysis. Occurs in growth stage (10-15yo). Fracture through proximal epiphyseal cartilage.
4) osteoarthritis. affects hyaline cartilage and subchondral bone.