Flashcards in Sievert: Leg and Foot Deck (66)
Where is Gerdy's tubercle?
It is locates on the anterior and lateral portion of the tibia, beneath the lateral condyle. It is an attachment site for the IT band.
List the bones of the foot and provide some description of their location.
3 phalanges on 4 toes, and 2 phalanges on big toe. 5 metatarsals. Cuboid bone laterally, beside three cuneiform bones. Behind the cuneiform bones lies the navicular bone. The navicular bone and cuboid articulate. THese both articulate with the talus and the calcaneus.
The tibia, fibula, and talus make up the true ankle joint. What are 3 important ligaments that keep the tibia and the fibula together?
anterior tibiofibular ligament
posterior tibiofibular ligament
What is important about the shape of the ankle joint? Because of this arrangement, when are you most likely to get a sprain?
It is wide anteriorly and narrow posteriorly; the joint is most unstable during plantar flexion, so you are more likely to get an inversion/eversion sprain during plantar flexion, because the talus bone can move medially or laterally in the socket.
The ankle is a true (blank) joint, allowing only for flexion and extension. So, why can we invert and evert at the ankle?
uniaxial; inversion and eversion occur at the subtalar joint and the transverse tarsal joint **not at true ankle joint
3 ligaments that really stabilize the ankle joint. What are they? Which two prevent adduction and abduction at the ankle joint? Which is most likely to be torn during an inversion sprain?
posterior talofibular (talus-fibula)**
anterior talofibular (talus-fibula) (most likely to be torn during an inversion sprain)
Medially, there are 5 different components to a ligament collectively called the (blank) ligament. These ligaments help stabilize the ankle joint on the medial aspect. This ligament is much stronger than the lateral ligaments, and is not as typically torn. When it is torn, however, how does this occur? What is it called?
deltoid; eversion injury; Pott's fracture/dislocation
What is the inferior articular surface of the tibia for?
the trochlea of the talus
What is the subtalar joint in between?
What is the transverse tarsal joint in between?
calcaneus and cuboid bones, and talus and navicular bones
What is the tarsometatarsal joint in between?
between the metatarsals and the 1st, 2nd, 3rd cuneiform bones, and the cuboid
What are the inferior fibular retinacula for?
hold down the fibularis longus and brevis
What is the point on the calcaneus that allows for the passage of a tendon on its way to the foot? Which tendon passes through this point? Which two tendons pass superior to this point?
sustentaculum tali; flexor hallicus longus
**passes underneath this groove on its way to the foot
tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus pass superior (Tom, Dick, Artery, Nerve, Harry)
Where do pronation and supination tend to happen in relation to the ankle joint?
pronation and supination tend to happen at the joint between the metatarsals and the phalanges - more anteriorly.
At what joint does inversion/eversion primarily occur?
at the subtalar joint (talus - calcaneus)
**also at transverse tarsal
Which joint is clinically used for amputations?
transverse tarsal join (calcaneus - cuboid and talus - navicular)
When you have an inversion sprain during plantar flexion, what is the most common ligament to be torn? What muscle can also cause a piece of the 5th metatarsal to be torn off during inversion?
anterior talofibular ligament (talus-fibula) is the most common ligament to be torn during inversion.
Also possible to tear off a bit of the metacarpal due to the fibularis tertius.
There are two arches of the foot. What are they?
How are arches maintained?
1. the shape of the bones
2. ligaments of the foot maintain the bones in their proper positions
Dynamic arch support occurs when you put compression on the arches. What provides this support?
long tendons of muscles:
flexor hallucis longus
flexor digitorum longus
**As long tendons come in, they insert underneath the foot and work together to pull up the arches and provide dynamic support.
On which side of the foot, lateral or medial, is the longitudinal arch more pronounced?
medial side (ex: look at a footprint)
What are 3 important ligaments on the plantar aspect of the foot?
1. plantar aponeurosis
2. long and short plantar ligaments
3. spring ligament (calcaneonavicular ligament)
What does the long plantar ligament connect?
significant attachment to calcaneus then extends to metacarpals
What does the short plantar ligament connect?
calcaneus and cuboid
What does the spring ligament connect?
calcaneus and navicular bone
Which arch does flatfoot or "pes planus" primarily affect? When is flat foot "normal?" What's the difference between flexibile flatfoot and rigid flatfoot?
longitudinal arch; normal before age 3 due to thick fat pad in the sole of the foot; flexible refers to the presence of an arch without weight, but flatfoot with weight; rigid refers to flatfoot even without weight
The knee joint bears weight, is moveable, and absorbs shock. What is significant about the intercondylar fossa of the knee?
it is the attachment site of two intracapsular ligaments (ACL and PCL)
What is significant about the synovial membrane of the knee joint?
It is really baggy to allow for full flexion, and it reflects up a bit onto the femur
The femoral condyles are rounded while the tibial plateau is flat. How is it that these surfaces articulate?
As you move from flexion to extension, the condyles of the femur travel on the tibia. However, these two surfaces are rarely in contact, because this is such a loose packed joint