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Congestive Cardiac Failure > Signs and Symptoms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Signs and Symptoms Deck (11)
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1

What are the symptoms of heart failure?

- Dyspnoea (reduced lung compliance or increased respiratory rate)
- Orthopnea
- PND
- Loss of energy and tiredness

2

What suggests right sided heart failure?

- Peripheral oedema
- Hepatomegaly
- Elevated JVP
- Ascites
- Nausea
- Anorexia
- Facial engorgement
- Epistaxis

3

What suggests left sided heart failure?

- dyspnoea
- poor exercise tolerance
- fatigue
- orthopnea
- PND
- nocturnal cough (+/-pink frothy sputum)
- wheeze
- nocturia
- cold peripheries
- weight loss
- Bibasal crepitations (pulmonary oedema)

4

What causes pulmonary oedema?

The normal pooling of blood in the lungs in the supine position is added to the chronically congested vasculature; increased venous return cannot be compensated for by the left ventricle.

5

What is the NYHA scale for heart failure?

NYHA1: no symptoms and no limitation in ordinary physical activity
2: mild symptoms and slight limitation
3: marked limitation in activity due to symptoms, even during less than ordinary activity
4: severe limitations, experiences symptoms even while at rest

6

What are the signs for heart failure?

- Pulmonary oedema/pleural effusion (basal crepitations)
- Elevated JVP
- Pitting oedema
- Ascites
- Tachycardia
- S3 gallop
- Enlarged liver

7

What are the peripheral signs of infective endocarditis?

- Petechial
- Sublingual (splinter) haemorrhages: dark red linear lesions in the nail beds
- Osler nodes: tender subcutaneous nodules usually found in distal pads of digits
- Janeway lesions: non-tender maculae on the palms and soles
- Roth spots: retinal haemorrhages with small, clear centres

8

What is the presentation of infective endocarditis?

Fever + new murmur = endocarditis until proven otherwise
Any fever lasting >1 week in those known to be at risk must prompt blood cultures

9

What are the septic signs of infective endocarditis?

- Fever
- Rigors
- Night sweats
- Malaise
- Anaemia
- Splenomegaly
- Clubbing

10

What are the cardiac lesions signs of infective endocarditis?

- Any new murmur or change in pre-existing murmur
- Vegetations may cause valve destruction and severe regurgitation or valve obstruction

11

What are the immune complex depositions in IE?

- Vasculitis
- Microscopic haematuria
- Glomerulonephritis
- AKI
- Roth spots
- Splinter haemorrhages
- Osler's nodes