Flashcards in Signs and Symptoms Deck (11)
What are the symptoms of heart failure?
- Dyspnoea (reduced lung compliance or increased respiratory rate)
- Loss of energy and tiredness
What suggests right sided heart failure?
- Peripheral oedema
- Elevated JVP
- Facial engorgement
What suggests left sided heart failure?
- poor exercise tolerance
- nocturnal cough (+/-pink frothy sputum)
- cold peripheries
- weight loss
- Bibasal crepitations (pulmonary oedema)
What causes pulmonary oedema?
The normal pooling of blood in the lungs in the supine position is added to the chronically congested vasculature; increased venous return cannot be compensated for by the left ventricle.
What is the NYHA scale for heart failure?
NYHA1: no symptoms and no limitation in ordinary physical activity
2: mild symptoms and slight limitation
3: marked limitation in activity due to symptoms, even during less than ordinary activity
4: severe limitations, experiences symptoms even while at rest
What are the signs for heart failure?
- Pulmonary oedema/pleural effusion (basal crepitations)
- Elevated JVP
- Pitting oedema
- S3 gallop
- Enlarged liver
What are the peripheral signs of infective endocarditis?
- Sublingual (splinter) haemorrhages: dark red linear lesions in the nail beds
- Osler nodes: tender subcutaneous nodules usually found in distal pads of digits
- Janeway lesions: non-tender maculae on the palms and soles
- Roth spots: retinal haemorrhages with small, clear centres
What is the presentation of infective endocarditis?
Fever + new murmur = endocarditis until proven otherwise
Any fever lasting >1 week in those known to be at risk must prompt blood cultures
What are the septic signs of infective endocarditis?
- Night sweats
What are the cardiac lesions signs of infective endocarditis?
- Any new murmur or change in pre-existing murmur
- Vegetations may cause valve destruction and severe regurgitation or valve obstruction