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Flashcards in SITE PREPARATION Deck (33)
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The steepest angle at which loose material remains stationary without sliding down slope

Angle of Repose


Survey that locates all physical improvements on the land in relation to the boundary lines of the land

As-built survey


Original survey, resurvey, or retracement of public lands within the public land survey system of the United States for restoration of property lines

Cadastral Survey


Largest nonpoint water pollutant by volume



5 contributing factors of soil erosoion

1. Soil type
2. Vegetative cover
3. Topography
4. Climate / Precipitation
5. Wind


Erodibility of soils determined by (4) physical properties of the soil:

1. Particle size and gradation
2. Soil structure
3. Permeability
4. Organic content


Highly erodible soils

High content of silt
Fine Sand


Less erodible soils

Well-graded gravels and sand-gravels

Clayey soils (but clay that does erode will remain suspended, not ideal)

Soils w/ organic content


Model for estimating soil loss

Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)

Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation


How vegetation helps to prevent soil erosion (3)

1. Shields soil from impact of rain
2. Slows runoff velocity through increased surface friction
3. Root systems hold soil in place


Ways to reduce erosion caused by topographic conditions (4)

1. Avoid steep slopes
2. Limit gradient and length of slope
3. Protect disturbed slopes as quickly as possible
4. Consider how orientation will impact ability of vegetation to recover


Construction scheduling and erosion (2 issues)

1. Construction should take place during relative dry periods (when possible)
2. Construction schedule should be timed with optimal seeding period(s)


Detachment and movement of soil or rock fragments by water, wind, ice, and gravity



The process of settling or being deposited as sediment



Erosion and Sediment Control Principles in construction (4)

1. Minimize disturbance
2. Control runoff
3. Collect sediment
4. Monitor construction


(5) Principals of minimizing construction disturbance

1. Work with existing topography and preserve pre-development drainage patterns

2. Restrict area of disturbance

3. Cluster development

4. Manage site construction (equipment movement and staging; thoughtful sequencing and phasing)

5. Preserve existing vegetation, particularly woodlands


(2) Methods of controlling runoff on construction sites

1. Divert stormwater to prevent runoff from crossing disturbed / exposed soils

2. Vegetative buffer strips (reduce runoff velocity) - if diversion is not feasible


(5) Methods of collecting sediment on construction sites

1. Sediment traps / basins*
2. Inlet protection
3. Silt fences / barriers
4. Vegetative filter strips
5. Stabilized construction access points

* only sediment basins are suitable for substantial / concentrated flows


Erosion Control: Runoff Control Measures (5)

1. Diversions

2. Waterways (natural / constructed channels to dispose of excess water)

3. Slope protection structures (pipes / chutes that direct water down steep slopes)

4. Grade control structures (chutes, weirs, pipe drop spillways)

5. Outlet protection


Erosion Control: Soil Stabilization Measures (5)

(Generally: Protect soil surface from impact of raindrops and of sheet or rill erosion)

1. Divert flow

2. Vegetation

3. Retain ex. topsoil for reuse

4. Reestablish vegetative cover asap

5. Organic / inorganic mulch, gravel, structures stone, geotextile


Erosion Control - Biotechnical Measures:

Good for small slumps that are frequently wet. Live rootable cuttings tamped into ground; create a stabilizing mat as roots grow; removes excess soil moisture through uptake

Live Staking


Erosion Control - Biotechnical Measures:

Bundled branch cuttings; align branch and rooting ends; Helps to stabilize slopes, reduce erosion, and reduce face sliding; Placed in trenches parallel to the contour; anchored w/ live and dead stakes

Live Fascines


Erosion Control - Biotechnical Measures:

Similar to live fascine but oriented perpendicular to the slope; More effective than live fascine for earth reinforcement and mass stability; Live branch cuttings layered in criss-cross perpendicular to the slope on excavated benches; then covered w/ soil

Brush Layering


Erosion Control - Biotechnical Measures:

Brush layering w/ added live staking; Best for small, localized holes or slumps

Branch Packing


Erosion Control - Biotechnical Measures:

Boxlike structure fabricated w/ untreated timber w/ layers of live branch cuttings and soil / other appropriate backfill. Used in lieu of low walls at bottom of slope to stabilize the toe; Branch cuttings should extend into the slope

Live Cribwall


Erosion Control - Biotechnical Measures:

Prefabricated tubes of biodegradable material bound together by netting; used at top, toe, and face of a slope to intercept and slow runoff and remove sediment; Must be staked ; May also be used along streams, ponds, lakes; May be planted

Fiber Rolls


Erosion Control - Biotechnical Measures:

Similar to fiber rolls but constructed with logs, is rigid, and longer lasting

Log Terraces


Most effective strategy for minimizing erosion

Reduce area of disturbance



Temporary Erosion and Sedimentation Plan

Often required by code


Site Preparation, Typical Procedure (5)

1. Protection of existing vegetation and structures
2. Topsoil removal
3. Erosion and sediment control
4. Clearing and demolition
5. Placement of grade stakes