Flashcards in skeletal modelling (1) Deck (25):
neurological disorders may show clinically as:
delays in milestones
head size abnormalities (too big/too small)
activities, reflexes or movement abnormalities
lack of co-ordination (DSD: developmental co-ordination disorder/dyspraxia)
changes in level of consciousness or mood
mm changes: spasms, hypotonicity,
headaches, vision changes
name some examples of gross motor testing examples
- hopping/ jumping on one foot
- pushing against hands
- eyes closed: touch nose
name some examples of fine motor tests
picking up objects?
transfer from one hand to another
name some common neurological syndromes
when does osteogenesis occur?
begins at week 5 until about 25 y/o
what makes up the 'blue print' for mature skeleton?
--> x rays show the bone 'chasing' the cartilage
what % water is hyaline cartilage?
outline Wolff's law
form follows function:
skeletal architecture adapts to its history of mechanical usage
must be dynamic stress
identify some 'evidence' or examples of wolff's law
long bones are thickest mid shaft
curved bones are thickest where they are most likely to buckle
there are large bony nodules where active mm attach
what are some hormonal forces in bone remodelling?
PTH increases renal retention of calcium
calcitonin (from thyroid) increases osteoblast activity
what is the epiphysis?
what is the metaphysis?
the bit in between the growth plate and the rest of the bone
what is an apophysis?
insertion to bone via the tendon unit
what is cantilever force?
force applied to the end of an already curved object --> further curving. e.g. WB on already bowed and highly cartilaginous femur/tibia
requires 3 points of pressure. think of bending uncooked spaghetti
what is sheer-torsion force?
when the forces are applied in opposite directions (think of wringing out a wet towel)
which # is the most common in the salter harris scale?
type 2: metaphysis and physis fracture
type 1 salter harris fracture
physis fracture (straight across the neck type area)
type 2 salter harris
metaphysis and physis fracture. goes across then proximally
type 3 salter harris
epiphysis and physis fracture, kind of takes off the corner of the bone
type 4 salter harris fracture
epiphysis to metaphysis fracture is when it makes a thin slice down one side
type 5 salter harris
what influences the configuration and size of skeletal muscles?
nutrition, hormones, electrical activity and mechanical forces
do patients under 4 years have R1?
no they don't have an R1 (in the stress strain curve) because they have such flexible bones