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Flashcards in skeletal modelling (1) Deck (25):
1

neurological disorders may show clinically as:

delays in milestones
head size abnormalities (too big/too small)
activities, reflexes or movement abnormalities
lack of co-ordination (DSD: developmental co-ordination disorder/dyspraxia)
changes in level of consciousness or mood
mm changes: spasms, hypotonicity,
headaches, vision changes

2

name some examples of gross motor testing examples

- hopping/ jumping on one foot
- pushing against hands
- eyes closed: touch nose
- plantar
patella/AJ reflexes

3

name some examples of fine motor tests

pincher grasp
writing ability
picking up objects?
transfer from one hand to another
shoe laces
clapping

4

name some common neurological syndromes

muscular dystrophy
myasthenia gravis
cerebral palsy
huntington's chorea
MS

5

when does osteogenesis occur?

begins at week 5 until about 25 y/o

6

what makes up the 'blue print' for mature skeleton?

prenatal cartilage
--> x rays show the bone 'chasing' the cartilage

7

what % water is hyaline cartilage?

78%

8

outline Wolff's law

form follows function:
skeletal architecture adapts to its history of mechanical usage
must be dynamic stress

9

identify some 'evidence' or examples of wolff's law

long bones are thickest mid shaft
curved bones are thickest where they are most likely to buckle
there are large bony nodules where active mm attach

10

what are some hormonal forces in bone remodelling?

PTH increases renal retention of calcium
calcitonin (from thyroid) increases osteoblast activity

11

what is the epiphysis?

growth plate

12

what is the metaphysis?

the bit in between the growth plate and the rest of the bone

13

what is an apophysis?

insertion to bone via the tendon unit

14

what is cantilever force?

force applied to the end of an already curved object --> further curving. e.g. WB on already bowed and highly cartilaginous femur/tibia

15

what flexure?

requires 3 points of pressure. think of bending uncooked spaghetti

16

what is sheer-torsion force?

when the forces are applied in opposite directions (think of wringing out a wet towel)

17

which # is the most common in the salter harris scale?

type 2: metaphysis and physis fracture

18

type 1 salter harris fracture

physis fracture (straight across the neck type area)

19

type 2 salter harris

metaphysis and physis fracture. goes across then proximally

20

type 3 salter harris

epiphysis and physis fracture, kind of takes off the corner of the bone

21

type 4 salter harris fracture

epiphysis to metaphysis fracture is when it makes a thin slice down one side

22

type 5 salter harris

crush fracture

23

what influences the configuration and size of skeletal muscles?

nutrition, hormones, electrical activity and mechanical forces

24

do patients under 4 years have R1?

no they don't have an R1 (in the stress strain curve) because they have such flexible bones

25

why do mm imbalances occur?

- disturbances in mm recruitment due to CNS dysfunction
- pathological resting postures
- inappropriate or excessive distances between load bearing joints and vertical body weight load lines
- inappropriate distribution of COM over the feet (i.e. leaning forward, to the side etc.)