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Flashcards in SkelRad A Midterm Deck (53)
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1

What germ layer is bone derived from?

mesoderm

2

Diaphysis

primary center of ossification

3

epiphysis

secondary center of ossification

4

apophysis

secondary growth centers
a protuberance
functions as the attachment site for ligaments and tendons

5

Enthesis

site of attachment of tendons and ligaments
highly vascularized
high metabolic activity

6

What are the four functions of periosteum

attaches to the cortex via sharpey's fibers
maintains caliber of bone by appositional bone growth
provies a transitional zone of attachment for muscles, ligament, and tendons
serves as a source of vascular perfusion for the outer third of the cortex

7

5 zones of the growth plate:

metaphysis
zone of degeneration
zone of hypertrophy
zone of proliferation
resting cartilage

8

Resting cartilage

attaches growth plate to epiphysis
if injured, growth stops

9

zone of proliferation

where bone is lengthened due to active growth of chondrocytes
if cells die, growth stops

10

zone of hypertrophy

chondrocytes mature
no active growth
weakest portion of the plate
site of salter-harris fractures

11

zone of degeneration

aka zone of ossification
site of dying chrondrocytes, ossification starting
attaches growth plate to metaphysis

12

What type of bone marrow is hematopoietically active

Red marrow

13

what type of bone marrow increases with age

yellow (fatty) marrow

14

how are calcium and phosphorous levels related?

inversely

15

what are the two main functions of parathormone

stimulate and control the rate of bone remodeling
influence mechanisms governing control of plasma level calcium

16

Two direct effects of parathormone

stimulates ca++ absorption from glomerular fluid in kidneys
promotes osteoclastic resorption in the bone

17

indirect effect of parathormone

influences rate of calcium absorption in the intestine

18

functions of vitamin d

regulates intestinal mineral absorption
maintains skeletal growth and mineralization

19

Vitamin D

key hormone responsible for calcium absorption from the diet

20

Categories of bone disease

"cat bites"
congenital
arthritis
trauma
blood (hematological)
infection
tumor
endocrine, nutritional, metabolism
soft tissue

21

Types of osteolytic lesions

geographic
motheaten
permeative

22

Characteristics of geographic lesions

destructive, sharp borders, less aggressive, slow growing, benign, narrow zone of transition

23

Characteristics of moth-eaten lesions

destructive, ragged borders, more rapid growth, may be malignant, 2-5 mm diameter

24

Punched-out lesions are characteristic of what?

multiple myeloma

25

characteristics of permeative lesions

ill-defined, worm holes, wide zone of transition, implies aggressive malignancy

26

Osteoblastic lesions

aka osteogenic
refers to a lesion that produces new bone where it should not be

27

A narrow zone of transition indicates what type of margin

sharp margins

28

A wide zone of transition indicates what type of margin

poor margins
difficult to ascertain where the lesion starts and stops

29

How does bone usually respond to lesions?

by making new bone

30

What kind of periosteal response do you usually see with a slow growing lesion?

Solid
the periosteum has plenty of time to respond to the process
can produce new bone just as fast as the lesion is growing