Flashcards in Skill & Transfer (Psychology) Deck (27):
Identify the characteristics of skill
- Aesthetically pleasing
- Controlled and learned
A- they are flowing and smooth and are appealing to the eye
C- performed with few mistakes and success is repeatable
E- minimisation of time, don’t waste time
F- good technique, movement is coordinated and controlled
A- goal directed, pre-determined
C- you are not born able to perform skill and you don’t improve through maturation
E- Minimisation of energy, they look effortless
Characteristics of skill
-Discrete skills have a clear beginning and end e.g. tennis serve, shot put, long jump
-Serial skills are composed of several discrete elements strung together e.g triple jump, floor routine in gymnastics
-Continuous skills have no clear beginning or end e.g. running, swimming, cycling
-Open skills are varied according to what is happening in the environment e.g. hockey tackle, marathon, pass in football
-Closed skills can be performed with little or no reference to the environment e.g. free throw in basketball, discus throw, shot put, pommel horse
The pacing continuum
-Self paced skills are when the performer controls the rate at which the skills is executed e.g. golf swing, pole vault
-Externally paced skills are when the environment controls the rate at which the skills is executed e.g. sailing, rugby tackle, swimming start
-Gross skills involve large muscle movements and are not particularly precise e.g. weight lifting, discus throw, rugby tackle
-Fine skills involve small muscle movements and usually require a high degree of precision e.g. golf putt, archery, shooting
-Simple skills involve little information processing/decision making e.g. golf swing, sprint start, long jump
-Complex skills involve lots of information processing/decision making e.g. pass in football, tennis return, rugby tackle
-High skills are difficult to break down into parts e.g. free throw, football pass, football shot
-Low skills are easy to break down into parts e.g. swimming, triple jump, dive
Methods of presenting practices
Whole method of practice
A skill is presented in total and practiced as a full movement i.e. without breaking it down into parts or sub-routines
Progressive part method
Each sub-routine is a link in a chain; the first and second parts are taught then linked together. The third part is taught and added onto the 'chain' etc.
The whole-part-whole method
-Learner tries out the whole skill
-Subroutines are practiced separately until perfected
-Subroutines integrated back into the whole skill again
Classify both the whole and progressive part method in organisation
High organisation skills are best taught using the whole method as it is difficult to split these skills up into parts, whereas low organisation skills are easier to split these skills up into parts.
Classify both the whole and progressive part method in complexity
Simple skills are easy to teach using whole method as there is little information processing required. Complex skills are taught in parts so it is easier to manage the large amounts of information processing.
Classify both the whole and progressive part method in danger
Low danger skills can be taught using the whole method as there are little precautions that need to be inputted into the task. High danger skills are best taught using part progressive method so they can be simplified and made safer
Classify both the whole and progressive part method in continuity
Continuous skills are best taught using the whole method because it is too difficult to split up into parts. Serial skills are taught in parts as they are several elements strung together.
Types of practice
What is massed practice?
-Continuous practice with little or no rest in between attempts
-Learner works continuously at a skill until it is mastered or until time runs out.
What is distributed practice?
-Practice with relatively long intervals between each block of attempts
-The intervals could be rest periods or the teacher/coach could set alternative tasks
-It is important that no negative transfer occurs in these tasks
What is variable practice?
• Varying practice is important when a performer is learning skills which need to be used in different situations.
• Varying practice is important for open skills as the situation will be different every time, e.g. practice shooting in basketball from a variety of angles, positions, distances. However, when practicing closed skills it should be as close to “real life” as possible, and so practice should be the same every time.
What is mental practice?
This is the mental practice of a skill. The brain cannot tell the difference between the imagined experience and performing it for real, and it actually sends impulses to the muscles. These impulses are not strong enough to make the muscles contract, but as they are passed down the nervous system, the pathway becomes “imprinted” on the nervous system. Whenever you perform the skill it is like that pathway has already been practiced.
Subsequently it is important that a teacher/coach builds in opportunities for mental rehearsal where possible, as it builds confidence and motivation.
How skill classification informs practice structure
Discrete - Massed
Continuous - Distributed
Simple - Massed
Complex - Distributed
Gross - Distributed
Fine - Massed
Open - Variable
What is the transfer of learning?
the influence or effect of performing or practising one skill on the learning of another skill.
Types of transfer
-This is when a skill that has been learned enhances the learning of another skill.
-Similarities in both skill components and information processing characteristics will help increase the possibilities of positive transfer.
E.g. the information processing involved in tackling in hockey & football is very similar because you have to be in the right position to intercept the ball without conceding a foul.
How can a coach ensure positive transfer occurs?
-Ensure new skills are similar to old skills
-Ensure first skill is well learnt
-Plan progression between skills
-Eliminate bad habits
-Point out similarities in skills
-Identify elements which could hinder learning
-Ensure performer is motivated
-Ensure plenty of relevant repetition/practice
This is when one skill hinders the learning or performance of another skill.
Badminton and tennis. The wrist and arm action used to produce a tennis and badminton shot are very similar but not identical as they use similar techniques in slightly different ways: a tennis shot requires a firm wrist and a badminton shot requires a flexible wrist. Therefore they interfere with each other.
This is when learning is transferred from limb to limb from one side of the body to improve the other side.
E.g. When a basketball coach tries to develop their players’ weaker dribbling hand he relates it to dribbling with the strong hand.