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Flashcards in Skin Deck (49):
1

Erythematous papules and plaques with characteristic silvery scaling

Psoriasis

2

It demonstrates histologic epidermal proliferation with acanthosis and highly characteristic parakeratosis

Psoriasis

3

Increased thickness of the stratum corneum

Hyperkeratosis

4

Hyperkeratosis with retention of nuclei of keratinocytes

Parakeratosis

5

Thickening of the epidermis

Acanthosis

6

Epidermal intercellular edema with widening of intercellular spaces

Spongiosis

7

Separation of epidermal cells, one from the other; cells appear to float within extracellular fluid

Acantholysis

8

Accentuation of skin markings caused by scratching

Lichenification

9

The formation of severe intraepidermal bullae with prominent intraepidermal acantholysis, sparing of the basal layer and IgG autoantibodies directed against the epidermal intercellular cement substance are characteristics of this condition

Pemphigus vulgaris

10

Autoimmune disorder characterized by subepidermal bullae, with inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils in the surrounding dermis and IgG autoantibodies directed against epidermal basement membrane.

Bullous pemphigoid

11

Recurrent pruritic blistering disorder that is commonly associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy (celiac disease)

Dermatitis herpetiformis

12

It is most characteristically associated with a “target” lesion resembling an archer’s bull’s eye.

Erythema multiforme

There is usually hypersensitivity to coexistent infectious agents, various drugs, a concomitant connective tissue disorder, or an associated malignancy.

13

A melanin dysfunction that is limited to the eyes.

Ocular albinism

X-linked disorder

14

A melanin synthetic defect that involves the eyes, skin, and hair

Oculocutaneous albinism

Autosomal recessive

15

A melanin dysfunction that predisposes to actinic keratosis, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma because of sensitivity of skin to sunlight.

Oculocutaneous albinism

Autosomal recessive

16

This acquired loss of melanocytes in discrete areas of skin appears as depigmented white patches.

Vitiligo

May be autoimmune; abtimelanocyte antibodies

17

Produced by an increase of melanin pigment within basal keratinocytes.

Freckle (ephelis)

18

A pigmented macule caused by melanocytic hyperplasia in the epidermis

Lentigo

19

Common mole

Melanocytic nevus

20

Nevus that is present at birth characterized by nodular foci of dendritic, highly pigmented melanocytes in the dermis

Blue nevus

21

Benign nevus characterized by spindle-shaped cells that may be confused for malignant melanoma

Spitz nevus (juvenile melanoma)

22

This is an atypical, irregularly pigmented lesion with disorderly proliferation of melanocytes, dermal fibrosis, and often subjacent dermal lymphocytic infiltration.

Dysplastic nevusa

Transform into malignant melanoma

23

This irregular macular pigmented lesion on sun-exposed skin is characterized by atypical melanocytes at the epidermal–dermal junction.

Lentigo maligna (Hutchinson freckle)


Nonfamilial precursor of lentigo maligna melanoma

24

Umbilicated, dome-shaped papules are characteristics of thus contagious viral disorder.

Molluscum contagiosum

25

Vacuolated cells (koilocytes) in the granular cell layer of the epidermis are characteristics of this viral disease

Verruca vulgaris (common wart)

26

Skin tag

Acrochordon (fibroepithelial polyp)

27

Intertwining bundles of collagen and fibroblasts are characteristics of this benign neoplasm of the skin

Dermatofibroma

28

This extremely common benign neoplasm of older persons manifests as sharply demarcated raised papules or plaques with a typical pasted-on appearance; lesions occur on the head, trunk, and extremities.

Seborrheic keratosis

Aka senile keratosis

29

The characteristic appearance of this low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma is of a dome-shaped nodule bearing a central crater filled with keratinaceous material.

Keratoacanthoma

30

This premalignant epidermal lesion is caused by chronic excessive exposure to sunlight.

Actinic keratosis

31

This disorder is sometimes a marker of visceral malignancy (stomach, lung, breast, uterus) and is often seen in the setting of diabetes and other endocrinopathies.

Acanthosis nigricans

Acanthosis and hyperpigmentation, most often involving flexural areas, are characteristic.

32

Small, blood-filled capillaries lined with a single layer of endothelium

Capillary hemangioma

33

Hemangioma chracterized by purple red-area on the face and neck

Port wine stain, a capillary hemangioma


Strawberry hemangioma: bright-red raised lesion
Cherry hemangioma: small, dome-shaped red papule

34

Large, endothelium-lined spaces in the dermis and subdermis

Cavernous hemangioma

35

This disorder involves port-wine stain of the face, ipsilateral glaucoma, vascular lesions of ocular choroidal tissue, and extensive hemangiomatous involvement of meninges.

Sturge-Weber syndrome

Clinical manifestations include convulsions, mental retardation, and retinal detachment.

36

Skin tumor that frequently originates in a preexisting actinic keratosis.

Squamous cell carcinoma

37

Skin malignancy that most often presents as a scaling, indurated, ulcerated nodule; invasion of dermis by sheets and islands of neoplastic epidermal cells, often with keratin “pearls,” is characteristic.

Squamous cell carcinoma


Involves usually the LOWER part of the face
BCC- involves the UPPER part of the face

38

The most common of all malignant skin tumors.

Basal cell carcinoma


No metastasis

39

Skin tumor that grossly presents as a pearly papule, often with overlying telangiectatic vessels; characterized by clusters of darkly staining basaloid cells with a typical palisade arrangement of the nuclei of the cells at the periphery of the tumor cell clusters

Basal cell carcinoma

40

The most important prognostic variable for malignant melanoma is

tumor thickness

41

Growth phase of malignant melanoma that occurs in all directions but is predominantly lateral within the epidermis and papillary zone of the dermis.

Radial phase (initial)

42

Growth phase of malignant melanoma that extends into the reticular dermis or beyond

Vertical (later phase)

43

Growth phase of malignant melanoma that do not metastasize

Radial phase


Vertical phase - metastasis

44

Variant of melanoma that develops from preexisting Hutchinson freckle

Lentigo maligna melanoma

45

The most common of the variants of melanoma.

Superficial spreading melanoma

46

Variant of melanoma that has the poorest prognosis

Nodular melanoma

begins with the vertical growth phase

47

Variant of melanoma that most often appears on the hands and feet of dark-skinned persons.

Acral-lentiginous melanoma

48

An aggressive neuroendocrine malignancy that typically arises on the head and neck skin of the elderly and grossly appears as a red or violaceous nodule or plaque.

Merkel cell carcinoma

49

In addition to immunostaining for neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin, chromogranin), perinuclear “dot-like” staining with cytokeratin 20 is characteristic of this skin malignancy.

Merkel cell carcinoma