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Flashcards in Sleep And Dreams Deck (51):
1

What is sleep defined as?

A state of reduced consciousness during which the body is less active and less responsive.

2

What are 3 things that Circadian rhythms control?

Sleep awake cycle, appetite and hormone levels.

3

Explain the 5 stages of the sleep cycle:

1) “Light sleep” where you drift in and out of consciousness and can be woken easily. Eye movement is slow.
2) Preparing for “deep sleep”. Body temperature drops, heart rate slows. Eye movement stops.
3)”Deep Sleep” . Can experience sleep walking, night terrors, sleep talking.
4) Deep sleep continues. If people wake during this state they feel disorientated.
5) REM sleep. Intense dreaming and brain activity.

4

Describe brain waves during deep sleep:

Delta brain waves-EXTREMELY slow

5

What does REM sleep stand for?

Rapid Eye Movement

6

Describe brain waves during REM sleep:

Mimics an awake brain

7

Give 3 examples of what sleep deprivation can cause:

Memory problems
Weaker immune system
Increased risk of medical issues eg. Diabetes, heart problems and depression

8

Name 3 factors which can affect sleep:

Stress/ Sleep environment
Drugs
Zeitebergs

9

What are zeitgebers?

Environmental triggers eg. Light and dark

10

Give an example of something to help avoid sleep distruption from zeitgebers:

Low energy bulbs and screens

11

Name 3 types of drugs that could affect sleep:

Caffeine, stimulant drugs and alcohol.

12

What is the main assumption of the cognitive approach to sleep and dreams?

The mind is a processor of info and sleep helps with this processing.

13

What happens during sleep?

The brain modifies existing “schema” to make sense of experience and relate it to existing experiences.

14

What did DOMHOFF 2011 state?

That dreams happen because the mind does not have any other tasks to do. It will draw upon beliefs, emotions and experiences to create content.

15

Explain the reorganisation theory:

Main function of sleeping is to organise in order to improve memory storage.
The brain becomes overloaded with memories during the day and unneeded memories are deleted to make space during REM sleep.

16

What are adaptive memories?

Useful memories to retain.

17

What are parasitic memories?

Useless/ harmful memories that waste resources.

18

What is a strength of the cognitive approach to sleep?

Gives a clear approach to why REM sleep is so important to memory.

19

What are 2 disadvantage of the cognitive approach to dreams?

Based on a computer model of memory- lacks human research.
Doesn’t explain why dreams have a narrative.

20

How does the cognitive approach to dreams suggest that dreams are formed?

As random unconnected memories and ideas are activated, they combine to form a dream.

21

What is a cause of circadian rhythm disorder?

Shift work

22

What does EEG do?

Studies sleep and physics changed to the brain and body during sleep.

23

What was the aim of Dement and Kleitman’s study?

To find the link between dreams and sleep stages.

24

What was the method of Dement and Kleitman’s study?

9 adults came in for a polysomongraphy in a lab.

25

What is insomnia?

An inability to stay asleep

26

Name 2 causes of insomnia.

Stress and poor sleeping environment

27

What is a treatement for insomnia?

Sleeping pills (short term)

28

What is sleep apnea?

When someone stops breathing during sleep.

29

What are 2 symptoms of sleep apnea?

Loud snoring and insomnia

30

What is a cause of sleep apnea?

Lifestyle e.g. alcohol

31

What is a treatment for sleep apnea?

An air mask to help breathing.

32

What are 2 symptoms of sleep walking?

Unresponsive to surroundings and glaced eyes

33

What is a cause of sleep walking?

Sleep deprivation

34

What is a treatment for sleep walking?

Medication

35

What are 4 symptoms of night terrors?

Sit up in bed screaming and unaware or your surroundings and people around you.
Racing pulse
Eyes open and pupils dilated

36

What is a cause of night terrors?

Sleep deprivation and stress

37

What are 2 treatements for night terrors?

Treat underlying problems
Wake them up 15 mins before they usually occur

38

What is narcelepsy?

When people sleep through the day excessively.

39

What are 2 symptoms of narcelepsy besides sleeping during the day?

Excessive dreaming and sleep paralysis

40

What are 2 causes of narcalepsy?

Puberty and lack of hypocretin

41

What is CBT?

Cognitive Behavorial Therapy

42

What is CBT used for?

Helps people to identify and correct thoughts and beliefs that may contribute to sleep disorders e.g. Insomnia

43

What are some biological treatements for sleep disorders?

Melatonin tablets

44

What is light therapy used for?

To help someone reset their internal clock and circadian rhymths

45

What is the biological approach to sleep and dreams concerned with?

Nervous system and brain areas

46

What part of the brain is responsible for the release of melatonin?

The SCN

47

When does the SCN release melatonin?

When it gets info from the eyes as to whether it is light or dark.

48

What is the biological approach to dreams?

That they are random and meaningless

49

What is a disadvantage of the biological approach to sleep and dreams?

Its limited in terms of dreams

50

What do Oswald 1966 state?

That all animals need sleep to allow the body to carry out essential repairs.

51

What are the 3 things that Oswald stated sleep was needed for?

Repairing minor injuries
Removal of waste chemicals in the muscles
Replenishing neurotransmitters in the nervous system