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Flashcards in Sleep disturbance Deck (17):

Risk factors for insomnia

1. Female
2. Advancing age
3. Night/shift work
3. Chronic conditions
4. Chronic pain
5. Psychiatric illness
6. Stimulant use
7. Alcohol and drugs
8. Poor sleep hygeine



1. Pittsburgh sleep quality index
2. Insomnia severity index
3. Stanford sleepiness scale
4. Epworth sleepiness scale

If thyroid dysfunction suspected (hyperthyroid)
5. TSH, free T4



1. Time go to bed
2. Onset of sleep
3. Duration of sleep
4. Wake times
5. Perceived quality of sleep
6. Multiple awakenings at night
7. Poor work functioning, daytime naps
8. Stimulants, drugs, alcohol, medication
9. Flight, shift work
9. Bipolar, schizophrenia, anxiety
10. Sleep apnea, thyroid, chronic pain
11. Questionairres


Physical examination

1. Chronic medical conditions
2. Sleep apnea
3. Thyroid ++


Management overview

1. Manage underlying
Dyspnea, GOR, nocturia, pain
Drug use
Adverse effects of prescribed medication
Refer to specialist if: diagnosis unclear, advice needed, long history, Xresponse to therapy, intrinsic sleep disorder
2. Good sleep practises
3. Psychological and behavioural
Relaxation: hypnosis, meditation, deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation
Cognitive therapy->usually get more sleep than realise, doesn't cause major health concerns.
Stimulus control->associate bedroom with frustration, worry, poor sleep. Limit time in bed awake. If 15-20 pass, get up, return when sleep again
Sleep restriction
4. Pharmacological
Temazepam 10mg PO before bed


Intrinsic sleep disorders

1. Restless leg syndrome
2. Sleep apnea


Advice for good sleep

1. Sleep wake activity regulation
Go to bed same time, arise at regular time.
Avoid laying in bed ++time worrying, avoid oversleeping
Avoid napping
2. Sleep setting
Avoid bright light, seek exposure to light after rising
Avoid heavy meals within 3 hours, regular daily exercise
Quiet, dark room
Avoid pets
Use suitable matress/pillow, reserve bedroom for sleep and intimacy
Avoid alerting, stressful ruminations before bedtime
Avoid caffeine after midday
Reduce excessive alcohol, avoid tobacco, avoid illicit drug
3. Sleep promoting
Light snack, warm milk before bed
Warm bath before bed
Comfortable temperature for sleep


Sleep restriction program

For those with low sleep drive
1. A person with insomnia feels they sleep only 4 hours per night, despite generally being in bed from 10.00 pm until 8.00 am.
2. Instruct the person to start restricting their sleep to only 4 hours per night, as this is the length of time they think they are sleeping (eg go to bed at 2.00 am and wake up at 6.00 am).
3. The person must comply with this schedule until they are regularly sleeping solidly throughout the 4 hours and feel increasingly sleepy, wanting to go to bed earlier.
4. Once this target is reached, they can increase the time in bed by 30 minutes until they are sleeping through and craving sleep at an earlier time. Again the reward of an extra 30 minutes sleep will occur when the person is sleeping through their allocated time.


Prior to commencing hyptonics, counselling

1. Used at lowest dose for shortest time
2. Risk of impaired daytime alertness, tolerance and dependance, may not find their sleep refreshing
3. Limited quantity prescribed
4. Limited for 2 weeks
5. Broken sleep with vivid dreams may occur on cessation, can take several days/weeks to recover normal sleep rhythm


In what circumstances might long term hypnotic use be appropriate

1. Not on increasing doses
2. No reports of adverse effects
3. Knows they may be dependant
4. Efforts to taper down have been unsucessful


Definition of OSA

1, Episodes of complete or partial airway obstruction
2. >10 sec, 10/hour


Pathophysiology of OSA

1. During sleep, the pharynx is most vulnerable to collapse at end expiration secondary to the loss of the neural tone of the pharyngeal dilators, and especially at end expiration due to the loss of the positive intraluminal pressure.
2. Narrow pharyngeal cross-sectional area,++risk of an episode of apnoea during sleep. When aw
3. When awake, genioglossus activity is increased in OSA patients to compensate for reduced pharyngeal area and to maintain pharyngeal patency. However, this tone is decreased during sleep and the pharynx obstructs.
4. Hypoxaemia and hypercapnia may result from airway obstruction,
5. Episodes of apnoea and hypopnoea terminate with cortical or subcortical arousal.
6. Autonomic sympathetic activation occurs, which may result in cardiac dysrhythmias and vasoconstriction. If sleep is resumed after the arousal, pharyngeal obstruction may recur and the cycle is repeated.


Associated risks with OSA

1. HTN
2. Stroke
3. MI, HF, dysrythmias
4. Cognitive dysfunction
5. Depression
6. Metabolic syndrome
7. Oxidative stress
8. Motor vehicle accidents


Symptoms of OSA

1. +Daytime sleepiness
2. Apneas, gasping
3. Restless sleep
4. Insomnia
5. Fatigue
6. Snoring


Risk factors for OSA

1. Male
2. Obesity
3. Post menopausal
4. Large neck
5. Maxillofacial abnormalities
6. +Soft tissue->tonsils, adenoids
7. Chronic snoring
8/ Family history
10. Hypothyroidism
11. Down syndrome
12. Smoking, alcohol


Investigations in OSA

1. Polysomnography
2. Assess CV risks


Treatment in OSA

2. Weight loss
3. Positional therapy
4. Modafanil for hypersolomnence
5. Lipids, BP, DM, physical activity, smoking, alcohol modification
6. Avoid driving drowsy