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1

Deductive Approach

- Rule's First

2

Deductive (Pros)

- Direct
- Time Saving
- Respects Maturity + Cognitive Process
- Analytic Learners
- Teacher NOT need anticipate (as arise)

3

Deductive (Cons)

- Inappropriate for young (-metalanguage)
- Teacher-centered classroom
- Explanation not as memorable as demonstration
- Promote idea language learning = Rules learning

4

Deductive Approach
Rules presented SHOULD

- true
- clearly present what do / not cover
- clear
- simple (xSubrules)
- concepts students familiar with
- revelant to Ss needs and problem

5

Inductive Approach

- Examples lead to rules

6

Inductive (Pros)

- More likely to fit mental
- Cognitive (+ memory)
- Problem solving = + practice
- Autonomy

7

Inductive (Cons)

- Objective of language learning ≠ learning rules
- Working out rule ≠ practicing rule
- Mistakes
- ++ Lesson Planning
- (aspects/modality)

8

Why teach grammar
- implicitly

- exposition w/out alienation
- Acquisition = Most important mean

9

Why teach grammar
- explicitly

- If significantly different than L1
- Logical-Mathematical + Verbal-Linguistic Respon well

10

Explicit or implicit?

as required
- teach elements of language
- develop communication
(introduce + practice)

11

How to choose approach?
Explicit vs. Implicit

- Age
- Intelligences/Styles
- Difficulty/Differences

12

Purpose of practice activities

Accuracy
Fluency
Restructuring

13

Accuracy
(What helps)

- Attention to Form
- Familiarity
- Thinking time
- Feedback

14

Fluency
(What helps)

- Attention to meaning
- Authenticity
- Comm. Purpose
- Chunking
- Repetition

15

Restructuring
(What helps)

- Problematizing
- Push
- Scaffolding

16

3 Layers of Context

Co-Text
Situation
Culture

17

PPP

Presentation
Practice
Production

Accuracy to fluency

18

Alternative Model

Task Based

Task
Teach
Task

Fluency to Accuracy

19

PPP (the model)

Language learned by bits
Grammar Knowledge Proceduralized
Prez and Practice (Traditional language teaching)

20

Alternative Model (the model)

Language (lumps and leaps)
Accuracy after Fluency
Grammar develops through exposure + interaction

21

PPP (an activity)

T explains GR point
Exercises done to develop accuracy
Production task for fluency

22

Alternative Model (an Activity)

Communicative Task to perform
T finds language features to improve
Features taught + practiced
L reporforms w/ new features

23

Teacher's choice of feedback strategy depends on:

Error types
Activity Type
Learner Type

24

Two Essential characteristics of Good language Practice Task

Clear Objective
Active Language Use