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Flashcards in Small and preterm baby Deck (16):
1

Definition of low birthweight, very low and extremely low birthweight?

Low - under 2.5 kg
Very low - under 1.5
Extremely low - under 1

2

Definition of preterm, very preterm and extremely preterm baby?

Preterm - under 37 weeks
Very preterm - under 32 weeks
Extremely preterm - under 28 weeks

3

Definition of small for gestational age (SGA)?

Birthweight under 10th centile of gestational age

4

4 main categories for causes of SGA baby?

Normal
Maternal
Placental
Foetal

5

Name 3 maternal causes of a SGA baby

Environmental - malnutrition, smoking
Comorbid disease - PE, HT, renal disorders, medications

6

Name 3 foetal causes of a SGA baby

Infection
Chromosomal abnormality
Malformation

7

Name 3 placental causes of a SGA baby

Multiple pregnancy
Poor implantation
Malformation
Placental insufficiency

8

Name 5 causes of a preterm birth

Idiopathic/unexplained (preterm labour +/- PROM)
Cervical incompetence
Multiple pregnancy
APH
Uterine abnormalities
Indicated preterm delivery (due to maternal or foetal compromise)

9

Name 8 consequences of being born SGA or premature. Which is worse, SGA or prematurity, in terms of severity of consequences)

Death
Respiratory distress, apnoea
Hypothermia
Hypoglycaemia
Poor feeding
Neonatal jaundice
Dehydration
Low Ca/Mg
Anaemia
Necrotising enterocolitis

Prematurity worse than SGA

10

What are the 3 key elements to managing a preterm newborn?

Keep it pink, warm and sweet

11

Name 3 causes of respiratory distress in a preterm newborn

Hilar-membrane disease (insufficient surfactant)
Pneumonia
Wet lung

12

Name 4 ways of delivering O2 to a newborn in respiratory distress. What is one complication of giving too much oxygen? What SaO2 is aimed for?

Nasal prongs/mask
Incubator
Nasal CPAP
Endotracheal tube

Complication of too much O2 - retinopathy of prematurity. Aim for SaO2 88 - 92%

13

What temperature do you aim to keep a newborn at?

36.8 +/- 0.3 C

14

What blood sugar do you aim for in a premature neonate?

> 2.5mmol/L

15

What are the main causes of mortality to extremely premature vs very premature neonates?

Extremely prem - Hilmar-Membrane disease, sepsis, NEC, malformations
Very prem - Sepsis and malformations

16

Name 3 main contributors to morbidity in very premature neonates

Cerebral palsy
Deafness
Developmental delay
Blindness