Flashcards in Small Animal Abdomen 1 Deck (80):
What are the topographical regions of the abdomen?
Cranial region, Middle region, and caudal region
What are the regions within the cranial region of the abdomen?
Xiphoid region (middle) and left and right hypochondriac regions
What are the regions within the middleregion of the abdomen?
Umbilical region (middle) and L/R lateral regions
What are the regions within the caudal region of the abdomen?
Pubic region (middle) and L/R inguinal regions
What are the superficial veins and arteries of the abdomen?
- Cranial superficial epigastric artery and vein
- Caudal superficial epigastric artery and vein
- External pudendal artery and vein
What nerves innervate the external abdomen?
- Dorsal and ventral branches of T13
- Cranial iliohypogastric nerve (L1)
- Caudal iliohypogastric nerve (L2)
- Ilioinguinal nerve (L3)
- Lateral cutanerve femoral nerve (L4)
- Genitofemoral nerve
What are the names of the passageways through the diaphragm?
- Caval foramen
- Esophageal hiatus
- Aortic hiatus
What prominent structures of the diaphragm surround the aortic hiatus?
left and right crus
What ligaments are associated with the liver?
- falciform ligament
- Round ligament
What ligaments are associated with the bladder?
- Median ligament
- Lateral ligament
What are the parts of the peritoneal cavity?
- Closed space
- Parietal peritoneum (transversalis fascia)
- Visceral peritoneum
- Connecting peritoneum (mesentery)
What are the parts of the omentum?
- Lesser omentum
- Greater omentum
--> Superficial leaf
--> Omental bursa
--> Deep leaf
where does the lesser omentum attach?
the lesser curvature of the stomach
Where does the greater omentum attach?
greater curvature of the stomach
What are the specific regional names of the mesentery?
What is the term given to tracing the intestines towards the stomach?
What is the term given to tracing the intestines towards the colon?
What are the regions/surfaces of the stomach?
- Pyloric antrum
- Greater curvature
- Lesser curvature
What is the cardia of the stomach?
a small area surrounding the esophageal entrance
- Cardiac sphincter surrounds the terminal part of the esophagus as it enters the stomach
What is the fundus of the stomach?
blind region that extends to the left and dorsally to the cardia; positioned farthests left of the midline
- first portion of stomach to fill with injesta or gas
What is the cardiac notch?
sharp angle formed at the junction of the cardia with the fundus regions of the stomach
What is the body of the stomach?
-largests region of the stomach
- communicates directly with the cardia and fundus
What is the pyloric region of the stomach?
the funnel-shaped terminal portion of the stomach; extends between the body wall and the duodenum
- undergoes little distension and last region to fill
What are the two divisions of the pyloric region of the stomach? What are they?
- pyloric antrum - continuous with gastric body. 2/3 of pyloric region. funnels injesta to the pyloric canal
- Pyloric canal - tapers to approx. size of duodenum. contains pyloric sphincter
What is the cranial flexure of the duodenum?
the curvature of the duodenum as it leaves the stomach and becomes the descending duodenum
What are rugae?
tortuous ridges of mucosa on the inner surface of the stomach
What marks the entry of the bile duct into the duodenum?
the major duodenal papilla
What marks the entry of the pancreatic duct into the duodenum?
major duodenal papilla
What marks the entry of the accessory pancreatic ducts into the duodenum?
minor duodenal papilla
Where does the duodenum begin and end?
begins just caudal to the pyloric sphincter and ends at the duodenojejunal flexure
What are the major parts of the duodenum?
- Cranial portion
- cranial duodenal flexure
- Descending duodenum
- caudal duodenal flexure
- ascending duodenum
- duodenojejunal flexure
Where is the caudal duodenal flexure?
at the level of the tuber coxae where the duodenum makes a sharp bend and continues cranially; located caudal to the root of the mesentery
Where is the duodenojejunal flexure?
where the duodenum meets the jejunum; here the mesentery is longer and the pattern of blood supply changes from short, straight vessels to arcades
what lies in contact with the medial side of the descending duodenum?
the right lobe of the pancreas
What is the duodenocolic fold?
ligament/attachment that runs from the ascending duodenum to the descending colon
Where does the ileum end?
at the ileocolic orifice near the cecocolic junction
What is the iliocolic orifice?
it is the junction between the ileum and large intestine (colon)
- guarded by the iliocolic sphincter
What is the iliocolic sphincter?
a thickening of the inner circular muscular layer that guards the passageway between the ileum and colon
What are the parts of the large intestine?
- anal canal
What is the cecum?
blind-ended pouch at the junction of the small and large intestines; a diverticulum of the most proximal part of the colon
Where does the cecum enter the colon and what guards it?
enters colon at the cecocolic orifice which is guarded by the cecocolic sphincter
What attaches the cecum to the ileum?
the short ileocecal fold (a peritoneal visceral ligament)
What are the major parts of the colon (ileocecal junction to the anus- includes rectum)?
- ascending colon
- right colic flexure
- transverse colon
- left colic flexure
- descending colon
What is the right colic flexure?
the angle where the ascending colon becomes the transverse colon
What is the left colic flexure?
the angle where the transverse colon becomes the descending colon
What are the three unpaired arteries that supply the abdominal viscera?
- Celiac artery
- Cranial mesenteric artery
- Caudal mesenteric artery
What branches off of the celiac artery?
- hepatic artery
- Left gastric artery
- Splenic artery
What branches off of the hepatic artery?
- hepatic branches
- right gastric artery
- gastroduodenal artery
What branches off of the gastroduodenal artery?
- right gastroepiploric artery
- cranial pancreaticoduodenal artery
What branches off of the splenic artery?
- pancreatic branches
- left gastroepiploric artery
What branches off of the cranial mesenteric artery?
- common trunk
- caudal pancreaticoduodenal artery
- jejunal artery
- ileal arteries
What branches off of the common trunk (branch from cranial mesenteric a.)?
- middle colic artery
- right colic artery
- ileocolic artery
What branches off the ileocolic artery?
- colic branch
- cecal artery
What branches off of the cecal artery?
- antimesenteric artery
What branches off of the caudal mesenteric artery?
- left colic artery
- Cranial rectal artery
What are the parietal paired arteries that supply the abdominal viscera?
- phrenicoabdominal a.
- Renal a.
- Ovarian/ Testicular a.
- Deep circumflex iliac a.
- External iliac a.
- Internal iliac a.
What does the aorta end as?
the median sacral artery
What does the common trunk of the caudal phrenic artery and cranial abdominal artery emerge from?
the renal artery
What are the nerves of the abdominal viscera?
- celiac ganglion
- cranial mesenteric ganglion
- splanchnic nerve (major and minor)
- sympathetic trunk
- dorsal vagal nerve
- Mesenteric plexus
- R/L hypogastric nerve
- Lumbar splanchnic nerves
What are the parts/lobes of the liver?
- Left lateral lobe
- Left medial lobe
- Quadrate lobe
- Right Medial lobe
- Right lateral lobe
- Caudate lobe
- Papillary process of the caudate lobe
What is found between the right medial and quadrate lobe of the liver?
What are the impressions/grooves/indents on the liver? What causes them?
- gastric impression (stomach)
- Descending duodenum impression (duodenum)
- Renal fossa (right kidney)
What vessels/ducts/tubes can be found on the caudal surface of the liver?
- caudal vena cava
- hepatic portal vein
- hepatic artery
- common bile duct
What is the cystic duct?
the duct at the base of the gallbladder that drains bile into the bile duct
What are the hepatic ducts?
Ducts that run from the lobes of the liver to the bile duct
What structures enter and leave the kidneys at the hilus?
- renal artery
- renal vein
What is the location of the left and right kidney?
Left: positioned slightly lower in relation to the right kidney; in contact with dorsal pole of spleen
Right: cranial pole contacts renal fossa of the caudate process of the caudate lobe of the liver
What is the suspensory ligament?
ligament that attaches the ovary to the abdominal wall (near the kidneys)
Where is the proper ligament of the ovary?
extends between the ovary and uterine horn
What is the structure of the bovine kidney?
multilobular, made up of 20 lobes which each contain its own cortex and medulla
What forms the ureter in bovine?
formed from calices (one from each lobe of the kidney)
How are the kidneys positioned in the bovine and why?
both kidneys sit on the right side of the body due to the rumen taking up the left side.
- Right kidney is cranial to the left kidney
What is the structure fo the equine kidney?
right kidney is heart shaped and the left is bean shaped.
What is the structure fo the porcine kidney?
Intermediate between bovine and canine - incomplete fusion of the lobes so the cortex is fused but the medullary pyramids and calyces remain distinct
- smooth exterior but a multilobular interior with 8-12 lobes
How are the kidneys positioned in porcine?
sit parallel in the body at L1-L4. Both kidneys are elongated
What are the major lymph nodes of the digestive system?
- Right colic
- Middle colic
- Left colic
- Medial iliac
- Internal iliac
What is a gastric dilation volvulus?
gas build up in the stomach which causes the pyloric region and duodenum to move cranially and become squished. Gas continues to build up in the stomach.
- A twisted stomach
What is a strangulated hernia?
viscera pokes through a hole in the supporting/muscular/wall tissues and becomes constricted.
What is a volvulus?
viscera twists and constricts itself