Flashcards in Lecture 5 Intro to Canine Pelvic Limb Deck (30):
How is the pelvic limb attached to the trunk?
by bony articulations
What does the ligament of the femoral head do?
anchors the head of the femur in the acetabulum of the os coxae
True or false? There is an additional accessory ligament of the head of the femur in the horse.
What do the right and left os coxae articulate to form?
the pelvis or pelvic girdle
How do the right and left os coxae articulate?
- articulates ventrally at the pelvic symphysis
- articulates dorsally to the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint
What four bones make up the os coxae?
Ilium (cranial, articulates with sacrum)
Ischium (caudal, caudal articulation of pelvic symphysis
Pubis (L shaped, cranial and medial to obturator foramen. forms cranial articulation of pelvic symphysis)
Acetabular bone (seen only in development as helps form the acetabulum and fuses with pubis, ischium, and ilium)
What is the pelvic canal?
the region between the pelvic inlet and pelvic outlet that imparts protection to the viscera of the reproductive, urinary, and digestive systems.
What are the lateral, ventral and dorsal boundaries of the pelvic inlet?
arcuate line, the ilium, and the promontory of the sacrum
What is the ventral, mid-dorsal, and lateral boundary of the pelvic outlet?
Ventral boundary: ischiatic arch
Mid-dorsal boundary: first caudal vertebra
Lateral boundary: sarcotuberous ligament, superficial gluteal muscles, muscles of the pelvic diaphragm
What are the four major fascias on the thorasic limb?
- Superficial/deep (thoracolumbar) fascia of the trunk
- Superficial/deep gluteal fascia
- Superficial/deep (fascia lata) femoral fascia
- Superficial/deep crural/tarsal fascia
What are the two muscles that together make up the iliopsoas?
psoas major and iliacus
What is the function of the iliopsoas m.?
flex the hip
What is the tensor fascia lata?
the deep femoral fascia on the lateral aspect of the limb (has superficial and deep parts)
What is the origin of the tensor fasciae latae?
tuber coxae; aponeurosis of middle gluteal m.
What is the insertion of the tensor fasciae latae?
What is the action of the tensor fasciae latae?
tense fascia lata; flex hip; extend stifle
What is the piriformis m.?
A separate component of the middle gluteal m. and is located between the middle and deep gluteal mm.
What are the muscles of the small pelvic association?
- Internal obturator
- External obturator
- Gemelli m.
- Quadratus femoris m.
What are the characteristics of the small pelvic association muscles?
- All insert within the trochanteric fossa of the femur, except the quadratus femoris which inserts on the intertrochanteric crest
- all are lateral rotators of the hip.
What muscles make up the hamstrings?
- Biceps femoris (caudal crural abductor)
What muscles contribute to the common calcanean tendon?
- biceps femoris m.
- gracilis m.
- gastrocnemius m.
- semitendinosus m.
- superficial digital flexor m.
Which muscles form the canial and caudal borders of the femoral triangle?
Cranial: caudal part of the sartorius
What are the four muscles of the quadriceps?
- Rectus femoris
- Vastus medialis
- Vastus lateralis
- Vastus intermedius
What muscle is the patella located within?
the distal tendon of the quadriceps femoris
What is the most superficial muscle of the cranial crus? (dog)
What holds down the tendons of the cranial tibial and long digital extensor?
the crural extensor retinaculum
What does the tarsal extensor retinaculum hold down?
the tendon of insertion of the long digital extensor
What is the triceps surae muscle?
the soleus, along with the two heads of the gastrocnemius.
(only in species who have a soleus)
What is the femoral triangle?
palpable region on the proximal and medial aspect of the pelvic limb where the femoral artery, vein, and nerve are located
Base: abdominal wall and inguinal ligament
Cranial border: caudal part of the sartorius m.
Caudal border: pectineus m.