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Flashcards in Small Ruminant Deck (64):
1

Reoviridae, orbivirus

Bluetongue

2

How is Bluetongue transmitted?

Arbovirus from culicoides

subclincal cattle are the reservoir

3

Where in the world does Bluetongue occur?

Tropics and subtropics

4

Why is bluetongue so varied in the severity?

Viral Strains

The breed of sheep

Influences of environmental stressors

5

Is this dz of economical importance?

Yes!!! Major Trade Barrier

6

C/S of Bluetongue

Fever
Hyperemia-damage wool
Frothing
Nasal discharge
Cyanotic tongue
Loss of condition
Death due to aspirate pneumia

7

If you see a sheep in recumbancy and coronitis, possibly edema of head and neck. What dz are you thinking about?

Bluetongue

8

Can bluetongue cause abortion?

YES, and congenital abnormalities

9

How long do sm rum shed bluetongue?

Not lifelong shedders or tolerogenic infections

10

Dx of Bluetongue?

BUFFY COAT sample.

RT-PCR

11

vacc for bluetongue?

Yes. but should only be used in endemic areas bc of reassortments and reversion of virulence

12

Lentivirus, Retroviridae

CAPRINE arthritis-encephalitis

13

Where in the world does CAE happen?

WW

14

What are your 2 syndromes of CAE

Encephalomyelitis in kids

Arthritis in goats older than 1

15

CS of CAE in kids?

Ascending paralysis,
paralysis, abnormal position of head and neck

16

CS of CAE in adults?

Insidious onset
lameness
wasting
trembling
dull haircoat
Swollen painful joints

but will remain afebrile, alert and good appetite.

17

What do the lesions in the CNS look like for CAE

focal malacia in the WHITE MATTER

18

Histologically what does CAE look like?

foci of mononuclear cell inflammation and DEMYELINATION

19

Joint lesions for CAE look like?

proliferative sinovitis

20

What is an odd thing to see at necropsy for CAE?

pneumonia

21

Dx CAE?

Ab detection.

22

Control of CAE?

No Vacc
test and removal

heating colostrum at 56 for 1hr, pasteurized goat/cows milk

raising them in isolation from infected animals

23

Pestivirus Flaviviridae

Border Dz

yes, the same as BVD

24

What is the family/genus name for CAE?

Lentivirus

Retroviridae

25

What is the family/genus name for Bluetongue?

Reoviridae

Orbivirus

26

CS for Border Dz

Congenital dz of lambs-low birth weight, poor viability, poor conformation, tremors, excessively hairy birth coats

Neurological signs in surviving lambs disappear 3-4 month post birth

27

Why do you see clinical neurologic signs in Border dz?

defective myelination of nerve fibers in the CNS

28

What dz can you see subclinical dz in adult sheep, but pregnant ewes may abort, stillborns, or deformed/mummified lambs?

Border Dz

29

In what dz can lambs develop an immune response while others have a PI, immunological tolerance, and remain seronegative?

Border Dz

30

Dx of Border Dz

CS,
Viral Isolation
Viral Ag detection in tissues

31

What can distinguish PrPc from PrPsc?

Monoclonal Ab

32

What dz has lesions in the grey matter including neuronal vacuolation, loss and degeneration of neurons and
astrocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia

BSE

33

Dx of BSE?

Anti- PrPsc Ab is used in immunohistochemical staining

Then WB

34

Where in the world do you find Scrapie?

North America, Europe

35

scrapie is mainly a dz of what animal? and what other animal can be infected?

Sheep-some breeds or more susceptible

Goats

36

What dz has an insidious onset where the sheep become excitable, tremors of the head and neck? with intense pruritis with progessive deterioration

Scrapie

Incubation of 2-5 years

37

Lentivirus, Retroviridae

Maedi/Visna

38

How long is the course of Maedi?

Incubation of 2 years and the dz can be months to years

39

Whats the other name for Maedi?

Where does it occur?

ovine progressive pneumonia--US

Europe

40

CS of Maedi?

Insidious onset--not recognized until 3 yrs old.

Jerking of the head with each inspiration and flared nostrils

Nasal discharge and cough.

Abort/weak lambs

41

Where is Maedi found in the body?

Lungs-homogenously consolidated & do not collapse when the thoracic cavity is opened

42

Dx Maedi

Ab ELISA

WB is more sensitive and used to confirm

Blood, semen, bronchial secretions, saliva, and milk

43

How is Maedi transmitted

Direct by droplets
Indirect by water, feces, biting arthropods, surgical equipment.

Transplacental is controversial

44

Control of Maedi

Test and removal programs

avoiding tansmission

45

Vacc for Maedi?

No...its a retro

46

Family/Genus Maedi?

Lentivirus

Retroviridae

47

Deltaretrovirus Retroviridae

Ovine Pulmonary Adenomatosis

48

Where in the world does OPA occur?

WW except Autralia and iceland

49

What is the difference in CS of Maedi and OPA

The production of large amounts of surfactant containing fluid produced by the tumor cells.

50

What do the lesions of OPA look like?

Pea sized nodules in the lungs

Adenomas, adenocarcinomas

With mestastasis

51

Dx of OPA?

histopathology--bc remember its a retro...

52

How is OPA spread?

Shed in saliva, resp secretion and entry is to the resp tract

53

Control of OPA?

isolations of flocks and removal of sick animals asap

54

Genus/Family of OPA

Deltavirus, Retroviridae

55

Parapoxvirus, Poxviridae?

Orf

56

Whats another name for Orf?

Contagious ecthyma

57

Zoonotic?

Yes...only in close contact-occupational

58

CS of Orf?

Muzzle and lips.

Lesions w/in the mouth maybe seen in lambs

rare lesions of eyelids, feet, and teats

lesions to pustules to crusts

59

Genus/family of Orf?

Parapoxvirus
Poxviridae

60

Morb and mort of Orf?

High morb low mort

61

Dx of Orf?

Clinical Dx
Confirmation through EM

62

Controlling Orf?

Difficult bc it can reinfect, and have chronic infections, its also very resistant in the environment

63

How is Orf transmitted?

Direct/Indirect

Feed, fomites (scabs)

64

Can you vaccinate against orf?

Yes, you want to vacc ewes weeks before lambing-nonattenuated.

Scarified skins in the axilla

This is short lived