Flashcards in Small Ruminant Deck (64):
How is Bluetongue transmitted?
Arbovirus from culicoides
subclincal cattle are the reservoir
Where in the world does Bluetongue occur?
Tropics and subtropics
Why is bluetongue so varied in the severity?
The breed of sheep
Influences of environmental stressors
Is this dz of economical importance?
Yes!!! Major Trade Barrier
C/S of Bluetongue
Loss of condition
Death due to aspirate pneumia
If you see a sheep in recumbancy and coronitis, possibly edema of head and neck. What dz are you thinking about?
Can bluetongue cause abortion?
YES, and congenital abnormalities
How long do sm rum shed bluetongue?
Not lifelong shedders or tolerogenic infections
Dx of Bluetongue?
BUFFY COAT sample.
vacc for bluetongue?
Yes. but should only be used in endemic areas bc of reassortments and reversion of virulence
Where in the world does CAE happen?
What are your 2 syndromes of CAE
Encephalomyelitis in kids
Arthritis in goats older than 1
CS of CAE in kids?
paralysis, abnormal position of head and neck
CS of CAE in adults?
Swollen painful joints
but will remain afebrile, alert and good appetite.
What do the lesions in the CNS look like for CAE
focal malacia in the WHITE MATTER
Histologically what does CAE look like?
foci of mononuclear cell inflammation and DEMYELINATION
Joint lesions for CAE look like?
What is an odd thing to see at necropsy for CAE?
Control of CAE?
test and removal
heating colostrum at 56 for 1hr, pasteurized goat/cows milk
raising them in isolation from infected animals
yes, the same as BVD
What is the family/genus name for CAE?
What is the family/genus name for Bluetongue?
CS for Border Dz
Congenital dz of lambs-low birth weight, poor viability, poor conformation, tremors, excessively hairy birth coats
Neurological signs in surviving lambs disappear 3-4 month post birth
Why do you see clinical neurologic signs in Border dz?
defective myelination of nerve fibers in the CNS
What dz can you see subclinical dz in adult sheep, but pregnant ewes may abort, stillborns, or deformed/mummified lambs?
In what dz can lambs develop an immune response while others have a PI, immunological tolerance, and remain seronegative?
Dx of Border Dz
Viral Ag detection in tissues
What can distinguish PrPc from PrPsc?
What dz has lesions in the grey matter including neuronal vacuolation, loss and degeneration of neurons and
astrocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia
Dx of BSE?
Anti- PrPsc Ab is used in immunohistochemical staining
Where in the world do you find Scrapie?
North America, Europe
scrapie is mainly a dz of what animal? and what other animal can be infected?
Sheep-some breeds or more susceptible
What dz has an insidious onset where the sheep become excitable, tremors of the head and neck? with intense pruritis with progessive deterioration
Incubation of 2-5 years
How long is the course of Maedi?
Incubation of 2 years and the dz can be months to years
Whats the other name for Maedi?
Where does it occur?
ovine progressive pneumonia--US
CS of Maedi?
Insidious onset--not recognized until 3 yrs old.
Jerking of the head with each inspiration and flared nostrils
Nasal discharge and cough.
Where is Maedi found in the body?
Lungs-homogenously consolidated & do not collapse when the thoracic cavity is opened
WB is more sensitive and used to confirm
Blood, semen, bronchial secretions, saliva, and milk
How is Maedi transmitted
Direct by droplets
Indirect by water, feces, biting arthropods, surgical equipment.
Transplacental is controversial
Control of Maedi
Test and removal programs
Vacc for Maedi?
No...its a retro
Ovine Pulmonary Adenomatosis
Where in the world does OPA occur?
WW except Autralia and iceland
What is the difference in CS of Maedi and OPA
The production of large amounts of surfactant containing fluid produced by the tumor cells.
What do the lesions of OPA look like?
Pea sized nodules in the lungs
Dx of OPA?
histopathology--bc remember its a retro...
How is OPA spread?
Shed in saliva, resp secretion and entry is to the resp tract
Control of OPA?
isolations of flocks and removal of sick animals asap
Genus/Family of OPA
Whats another name for Orf?
Yes...only in close contact-occupational
CS of Orf?
Muzzle and lips.
Lesions w/in the mouth maybe seen in lambs
rare lesions of eyelids, feet, and teats
lesions to pustules to crusts
Genus/family of Orf?
Morb and mort of Orf?
High morb low mort
Dx of Orf?
Confirmation through EM
Difficult bc it can reinfect, and have chronic infections, its also very resistant in the environment
How is Orf transmitted?
Feed, fomites (scabs)