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Flashcards in SMO 415 Final Deck (82):

environmental scanning

identify and anticipate sources of PTOs and scanning external environment (competitors, regulators) and internal environment (strategy, technology, culture)


labour demand forecast

project how business needs will affect HR needs, using qualitative methods (delphi, expert) and quantitative methods (trend analysis, simple/multiple linear regression)


what is labour supply and forecast

project resource availability fro internal and external sources


what are the uses of skills inventory

career planning and development
training needs assessment
lay offs
creating competency profiles


how can you inventory and forecast external supply

general economic conditions
activities of competitors
unemployment rates
educational enrolments
Canadian Occupational Projection System (COPS)
alberta short term employment forecast


what is gap analysis

reconcile forecast of labour supply and demand


action programming

implement recommended solution fro step 4


control and evaluation

monitor effects on human resource planning by defining and measuring critical criteria (ie turnover costs, break even costs of new hires, recruitment costs, performance outcomes)


what are the eight surplus strategies?

1. hiring freeze and attrition
2. cut hours/part time work
3. offer early retirement
4. temporary leaves of absence
5. voluntary severance
6. temporary lay offs
7. transfers
8. permanent lay offs


what is downsizing

activities undertaken to improve organizational efficiency, productivity and competitiveness that affects size of workforce


why do companies downsize?

down turn in business
perceived need to cut costs
mergers and acquisitions
new technology
strategic change
restructuring organization


what is the impacts of downsizing

less than 35% increased productivityes
less than 45% increased operating profits
around 33% productivity declined
less than third of companies achieved productivity and profitability goals
stock value increased when layoffs were because of strategic repositioning NOT cost cutting


what is the impacts of downsizing on employe

decline in motivation, work effort, trust
increases in fatigue, stress, resentment, retiring on job, turnover
companies who laid off more than 10% of employees have higher voluntary turnover
(fortune magazines best employees don't have lay-offs)


downsizing lessons

1. strategic vs cost cutting
2. careful choice of who goes
3. be careful how you termiante


what are the downsizing steps

consider how downsizing supports or interferes with strategy
consider how downsizing impacts short/long term HR needs
determine criteria for layoffs
develop severance packages and outplacement assistance
consider the survivors - what support they'll need
evaluate results


downsizing criteria

salary/wage level
voluntary severance
early retirement
relationships with customers
perfromance ratings
skills/qualifications assessment
future HR needs


criteria funnel

1. competencies and skills and qualifications for future jobs
2. performance ratings
3. seniority as a tie breaker


support for survivors

set vision for future
ongoing career planning and development
training for new job duties
adjust compensation and rewards
two way communication
employee surveys
employee assistance programs


shortage strategies

increase overtime and hours
outsource and temporary staff
internal transfers
earlier recruiting
postpone retirement
improve compensation and benefits
hiring bonuses
offer recruitment bonuses
expand recruiting channels/sources
recruit non traditional labour


what is employment equity

the removal of barriers in working conditions forr correction of the condition of disadvantage in employment


who are the four designated groups

visible minorities


which companies does the regulations apply to?

federal gov and employees
federally regulated employers and federal crown corporations with more than 100 employees
under the federal contractor's program, provincially regulated employers with more than 100 employees who wish to bid on contracts of $1 million or more


what are the steps to employment equity

1. review HR policies and practices to remove potential barriers
2. survey internal workforce to determine designated group representation
3. collect labour market data
4. compare 2 and 3 to determine if significant under representation of designated groups (4/5ths rule)
5. set goal and timetable to close the gap


what should employers consider in setting the goal and timetable

1. organizational plans and strategy (expansion or contraction)
2. number of job vacancies
3. turnover rates
4. availability of qualified designated group members internally and in the labour force


what does the 4/5ths rule not require employees to do

hire unqualified applicants
establish a quota
violate established seniority rights under collective bargaining agreement
terminate/demote non-designated group member merely to achieve employment equity goals


what are the recruitment steps

identify vacancies through turnover and human resource planning
identify sources of recruits, internal and external
identify appropriate recruiting channels
screen applicants
evaluate effectiveness of recruiting measures


what are the recruiting methods

online/social media
print media
private search firms
write in, walk-in
employee referrals
educational institutions
professional/trade associations
labour union hiring hall
job fairs
temporary agencies


what are the recruiting constraints

promote from within policy
employment status policy - full time v part time v temp
compensation policy
culture of organization
union contract clauses
employment equity policy
immigration policy


what does ESDC consider for foreign workers recruitment

if job offer is genuine
if wages and working conditions are comparable to what Canadians are offered
if reasonable steps are taken to hire Canadians first
if hiring will not affect a labour dispute
if you're bringing in new skills and knowledge


what must employers show when hiring temporary foreign workers

must apply for labour market impact statement LMIA
number of canadians applied and interviewed
why no canadians qualified
no canadians laid off or had hours reduced
caps on low paid temporary foreign workers
applications for positions requiring little skills or education will not be processed in regions with greater than 6% unemployment


what should you look for in resume screening

knowledge, skills abilities related to job requirements
unsubstantiated claims
unexplained gaps in work history
grammatical or spelling errors
references are current and work related
awards or scholarships?
professional designations/licenses
volunteer work


what are some common misrepresentations on a resume

length of time with employer
amount of salary
enrolled in academic program but didn't graduate
name of school
name of employer
criminal convictions


evaluation criteria for recruiting efforts data

1. potentially qualified / number of applicants
2. number accepted offer / number offered
3. survival rates %
4. cost / hire


information to evaluate effectiveness of recruiting efforts

exit surveys
designated group member data if under ee regulations
performance ratings of hires
time to hire
cost per survivor
satisfaction surveys of hires
absenteeism rates of hires
industry data where available


what does the personal information protection act state

sec 15 1) can collect info without consent for purpose of recruiting
sec 15 2) shall not collect without consent unless info only related to employment and volunteer work and must provide reasonable notification


what is selection

process of deciding which applicants to hire


what qualities do we want our selection tools to have

validity - measures what it's supposed to measure and is a good indicator of success for job criteria in question
reliability - gives consistent results over time and no matter who administers test


what is predictive validity

validity between what test predicts and performance


what is concurrent validity

instead of using job applicants , use existing workforce


what is content validity

test includes samples of tasks, skills etc necessary to do job


what is construct validity

measuring some sort of skill or ability that we associate with the job (not direct)


what are the validity coefficients

above 0.35 - very beneficial
0.21-0.35 - likely useful
0.11-0.20 - depends on sample size
under 0.11 - unlikely to be useful


what are two forms of reliability testing

1. test re-test - compare results
2. split halves - two equal parts of one test, compare both halves


what are the reliability coeffficients

above 0.90 - excellent
0.80 - 0.90 - good
0.70 - 0.79 - adequate
less than 0.70 - limited applicability


what are interviewer errors

premature judgement
appearance of candidate - beautyism
focus on negative information
similarity effect
contrast effect
halo/horns effect
poor recall
order of interviewees
poor questions


how can you improve the interview?

base questions on job analysis
structure interview and ratings
limit access to info about candidates before interview
have system to record responses
rate immediately after interview
use a panel of interviewers
avoid leading questions
set sufficient time for interview
check references after interview


what are interview question styles

1. biographical facts and credentials
2. technical knowledge
3. experience/activity descriptions
4. self evaluative information
a) likes and dislikes
b) strengths and weaknesses
c) goals, attitudes and philosophy
d) speculative statement
5. situational questions
6. behaviour description questions


what are the validity coefficients of situational interviews and behavioural interviews

situational - 0.43-0.47
behaviour without rating scale = 0.47
behaviour with rating scale = 0.51 - 0.63


what is emotional intelligence and what is it's validity

set of abilities which includes self control, zeal, persistence, and ability to motivate oneself
0.24-0.30 - useful


what is honesty/integrity tesitng

used by orgs concerned about possible dysfunctional behaviour but not really accurate


what is the big 5 traits of personality

emotional stability
openness to experience


What are the cognitive ability elements

verbal ability
numerical ability
reasoning ability
deductive ability
spatial ability
perceptual ability


what is the cognitive ability validity for different professions

managerial professions, sales representatives and clerical are highest at 0.54- 061
skilled trade and uskilled jobs are lower at 0.46-0.23


what are other selection techniques

work sample
job tryout
DNA testing
drug/alcohol testing
abilities test
reference checks
polygraph/lie detector


what do you have to show to be legally defensible to do drug/alcohol testing

evidence of a serious problem in industry/geographic area
position is safety sensitive one
testing done only after conditional offer is made
if applicant has substance abuse problem, must accomodate


what are the uses of performance appraisals

career planning
recruiting and selection audits
performance improvement or reinforcement
training needs assessment
layoffs and terminations
compensation and rewards
promotions and demotions
bona fide occupational requirements


who does the appraisals in 360 degree feedback



when does 360 feedback work best

1. raters use common performance standards
2. raters are anonymous
3. raters are trained in doing performance appraisals
4. appraisals are used for feedback and performance improvement, not for allocating rewards
5. appraisals followed up with action plan


what are the performance rater errors

recency effect
central tendency
halo/horns effects
contrast effect
attribution - situational vs disposition


factors in choosing a performance appraisal format

objective - job related criteria
cost of development
cost of use
ease of use
feedback for counselling and improving performance
information for HR decisions - pay, rewards, promotions, lay-offs, terminations


what is the graphic rating scale

five point rating scale 1-5, general, used for wide variety of positions


what is the behaviourally anchored rating scale

specific examples for each rating 1,3,5


what is the behavioural observation scales

how frequently employee does something good or bad
5- almost always
1 - almost never


what are critical incidents

in each category, record specific incidents of employee behaviour that were either extremely good or extremely poor


what is management by objectives

cascading goals
organizational --> departmental --> individual


what are the steps for MBO

1. negotiate goals
2 develop and agree on action plan
3. independent work
4. periodic review
5. final appraisal
6. allocate rewards
7 repeat cycle


what criteria should you use when deciding on objectives

SMART goals
specific action
measurable results
related to most important job requirements
time frame for completion


what are the objectives of recruiting and staffing

cost effectiveness
reduce time to hire
reduce turnover
reduce number of wrong hiring decisions


how can you make performance appraisals accurate

train raters in use
develop standardized rating system
ratings used for counselling not rewards
ratings confidential
ratings done regularly
busy periods avoided
raters have opportunity to observe employee on regular basis
establish appeal mechanism
raters held accountable


what is training

process of teaching employees the basic competencies they need to perform their present job or a job they may fill in the future


make vs buy

make - go out and hire talent and then intense training to make sure they have skills needed by the job
buy - go out and hire already skilled employees that already have all certification required by the job


what selection methods to use if you make

cognitive ability tests
abilities training
personality testing
school and employment history


what selection methods to use if you buy

work history
behaviour description questions in interview
work sampling
background and reference check
behaviour description interviewing
verification of education and training


How does canada compare to training

lowest in training particpation rate and lowest in hours of job related instruction /participant


what are the training steps

1. preparation
2. explanation
3. demonstration
4. participation
5, evaluation


what are the five elements of evaluation in training

organizational impact


what is dispute resolution

disputes between labour and management would be processed through grievance arbitration procedure - tool for further negotiation


what is the impact of union contracts on staffing

1. recruiting - shop clauses, notice requirements
2. selection - no impact
3. terminations - only just cause
4. lay offs- seniority determines order, severance specified
5. demotions - bumping rights, seniority clauses
6. transfers, change of shit - notice requirements
7. contracting out - not if it results in layoffs, only if sufficient skills, only to unionized firm


what are the three different shop clauses

closed shop - must be a union member to be considered
union shop - can recruit anyone but MUST join union if hired
agency shop - dont have to join union but have to pay union dues


what is the criteria for job vacancy clauses

abilities and skills


what are the 4 seniority clauses

1. straight seniority
2. hybrid clause - seniority, ability and qualifications are all given equal weight
3. relative ability - filled on basis of seniority and then skill, qualifications and ability and seniority as the tie breaker
4. sufficient ability - when employees each possess sufficient ability and qualifications to perform requirements of job, seniority shall govern


what are the two tests when assigning work outside the bargaining unit

quantitative test - what percentage of work being done would normally be done by bargaining unit workers
qualitative test - are bargaining unit employees qualified to do the work