SNS - Biology - Animal Behaviour Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in SNS - Biology - Animal Behaviour Deck (18):
1


Simple Relexes

  • Controlled at spinal cord
  • Two neuron pathway from afferent (receptor) to efferent
  • Efferent innervates effector (muscle or gland)

2


Complex Reflexes

  • Involve neural integration at a higher level - brainstem or cerebrum
  • For example, startle reflex - involves interaction of the reticular activating system which is responsible for sleep-wake cycle and behavioural motivation

3


Fixed Action Patterns

  • Complex, coordinated innate behavioural responses to specific patternsof environmental stimulation. For example imprinting in baby chicks
  • Releaser - triggering environmental stimulus
  • Certain types of stimuli are more effective in triggering FAPs, for example an egg with the characteristics of a mother bird's species will be more effective in triggering nurturing responses that one without

4


Learning

Habituation

  • One of simplest learning patterns
  • Involves suppression of normal startle responses to stimuli
  • Repeated stimulation results in decreased responsiveness to these stimuli
  • If stimulus no longer applied, response tends to recover over time - spontaneous recovery
  • Recovery can also occur with modification of the stimulus

5

Learning

Classical Conditioning

  • Pavlovian
  • Involves association of a normally autonomic or visceral response with an environmental stimulus

6

Learning

Classical Conditioning

Innate Reflex

Consists of an unconditioned stimulus and the unconditioned response - that which is naturally elicited by the stimulus

7


Learning

Classical Conditioning

Neutral Stimulus

Stimulus that will not by itself elicit a response prior to conditioning

8


Learning

Classical Conditioning

Conditioning

Establishment of a new reflex by the addition of a new, previously neutral stimulus to a set of stimuli that are already capable of trigerring the response

9


Learning

Classical Conditioning

Pseudoconditioning

Where the 'neutral stimulus' is capable of eliciting the response prior to conditioning, hence is not really a neutral stimulus

10

Learning

Operant Conditioning

Involves conditioning responses to stimuli using reward or reinforcement

  1. Positive reinforcement - association of a behaviour with a reward
  2. Negative reinforcement - association of lack of a behaviour with a reward
  3. Punishment
  4. Habit family hierachy - stimulus usually associated with several possible responses. Conditioning via reward or punishment can act to raise or lower a behaviour's place in the hierarchy, increasing or decreasing probability of that behaviour being the one performed

11

Learning

Modification of Learned Behaviour

  1. Extinction
  2. Generalisation and discrimination

12


Learning

Modification of Learned Behaviour

Extinction

Gradual elimination of conditioned responses in absence of reinforcement - unlearning of responses

  • Operant - Response diminished and gradually eliminated in absence of reinforcement. Non completely unlearned - will rapidly reappear if reinforcement returned
  • Classical - occurs when unconditioned stimulus removed or if was not sufficiently paired with the conditioned stimulus. Conditioned stimulus must be paired with unconditioned stimulus at least part of time for condiioned response to be maintained. Spontaneous recovery of conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus may be seen

13


Learning

Modification of Learned Behaviour

Generalisation and Discrimination

  • Generalisation - ability of conditioned organism to respond to stimuli similar but not identical to conditioned stimulus
  • Discriminnation - ability of conditioned organism to respond differently to slightly different stimuli

14


Learning

Limits

Imprinting

  • Process in which environmental patterns or objects presented to a developing organism during a brief 'critical period' in early life become accepted permanently as an element of its behavioural environment

15


Intraspecific Interactions

Behioural Displays

  • Display - innate behaviour that has evolved as a signal for communication between members of a species
  1. Reproductive
  2. Agnostic - eg dog's display of appeasement when it wags it's tail
  3. Other - eg dancing of honeybees

16

Intraspecific Interactions

Pecking Order

Dominant member of species will prevail over subordinate one

Minimises violent interactions by defining stable relationships amoung members of the group

17


Intraspecific Interactions

Territoriality

Serves adaptive function of distributing members of a species so environmental resources aren't depleted in a small region as well as reducing intraspecific competitiion

18

Intraspecific Interactions

Response To Chemicals

  1. Releaser Pheromones - trigger reversible behavioural change in the recipient, eg sex attractant pheromones, alarm and toxic defensive substances
  2. Primer Pheromones - produce long term behioural and physical alterations in recipient, eg regulation of role determination and reproductive capacities in social insects such as ants, bees and termites

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