Flashcards in Social behavior and Altruism Deck (36)
What are benefits of sociality? (6)
1. Dilution effect. 2. Hamilton’s Selfish Herd Principle. 3. Increased detection of predators. 4. Mutual defense. 5. Thermoregulation. 6. Cooperative hunting.
What are the costs of sociality? (4)
1. Dominant subordinate interactions. 2. Food competition. 3. Parasites/Disease. 4. Infanticide.
What is the dilution effect?
The chance of an individual being captured by a predator decreases as group size increases.
What is Hamilton’s Selfish Herd Principle?
Animals closer to the center of the group are more protected.
What are the three levels of social interaction?
1. Solitary. 2. Gregarious. 3. Social.
What is the social interaction rule of solitary social interaction?
"Don’t come near me unless it’s mating season."
Do animals with gregarious social interaction aggregate for more than one activity (mating)?
What is the difference between gregarious social interaction and social social interaction?
Animals with gregarious social interaction do not have rules and do not maintain a stable group.
Do animals with social social interaction have a stable group?
Do animals with gregarious social interaction social interaction rules?
What are the social interaction rules for animals in social social levels? (3)
1. Kinship. 2. Individual recognition. 3. Maintenance of relationships through interactions with members of the group.
What is postponed cooperation?
A eventually gets access to resources controlled by B because of previous help.
What is reciprocity?
B directly pays back A for previous aid.
What is spite?
A reduces its reproductive success in order to harm B.
What is adaptive altruism?
The initial direct fitness sacrifice made by A, leads to indirect fitness gains for B.
What is deceit and manipulation?
B exploits or manipulates A in ways that harm A, but benefits B.
What is a selfish type of social interaction?
Donor benefits at expense of recipient.
How would a selfish type of social interaction evolve?
Small % of selfish individuals, doesn’t fully interfere with RS of species.
What is a mutualistic type of social interaction?
Both donor and recipient benefit.
How would a mutualistic type of social interaction evolve?
Cooperation—both actors receive benefits they couldn’t attain without help.
What characteristics define a reciprocity type social interaction? (4)
1. Highly social. 2. Good memory. 3. Long lifespan. 4. Low dispersal—both eventually benefit.
How would a reciprocity type social interaction evolve?
Discrimination against cheaters, repayment opportunity, individual recognition.
Referring to the coefficient of relatedness, what is r?
Fraction of genes shared between two individuals.
What is the fraction of genes shared between parent-offspring?
What is the fraction of genes shared between siblings?
What is the fraction of genes shared between Aunt/Uncle-Niece-nephew?
What is the fraction of genes shared between Grandparent-grandchild?
What are the four ways to identify kin?
1. Location. 2. Familiarity. 3. Phenotype matching. 4. Recognition alleles.
What is the location mechanism for identifying kin?
Animals consider animals living in close proximity to the in-group.