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Flashcards in Lecture 5 & 6 Deck (23)
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What is the RA nucleus?

Brain part associated with song production.


What is the importance of the RA nucleus in studying hormone effects?

It is set up early from organizational effects. Also shows sexual differentiation via exposure to steroids during development.


What is an example of a maternal effect?

Female fetuses can get hormones from being surrounded by male fetuses.


What is an example of animals affecting the amount of testosterone in offspring?

They can choose more attractive mate, who usually have higher levels of testosterone.


What is the challenge hypothesis?

A transient change in testosterone that occurs in response to a challenge from another male.


What is the winner effect?

The increased probability of winning an aggressive encounter based on previous victories.


What is the winner-challenge effect?

The function of transient increases in testosterone after an encounter in males, is to increase the ability to win future male-male encounters.


What is an example of the winner-challenge effect? What was found?

Male caliform mice. When castrated and implanted with normal testosterone levels (injection for surge), it was found that both testosterone and winning experience were predictors in winning an encounter.


How did researchers test wasps for facial recognition?

They took individual wasps and exposed them to the facial image of 2 other (stimulus) wasps. One picture was paired to an electric shock. They examined whether the wasps would learn to avoid the facial image associated with the shock.


What was the results of the experiment in which researchers tested if wasps had facial recognition?

They were able to distinguish the face associated with the shock, and were able to avoid it.


How do we know truly tested for facial recognition and not something else?

When the pictures of the stimuli did not have antennae, or if the faces were re-arranged, wasps were not capable of pairing one image with an electric shock.


What was the negative stimulus in the facial recognition study in wasps?

The shock associated with one of the pictures.


What was the control in the facial recognition in wasps study?

The pictures not associated with a shock.


What is sensitization?

Becoming more sensitive to a stimulus over time.


What is habituation?

Becoming less sensitive to a stimulus over time.


In classical conditioning, when do you give the reward (for ex., food)?

After the stimulus (for ex., bell).


What is the "US"?

The unconditioned stimulus. Stimulus that elicits a response in the absence of training.


What is the "CS"?

The conditioned stimulus. The stimulus that fails to elicit a response, but comes to do so when associated with a second (unconditioned) response.


What is the "CR"?

The conditioned response. The response that occurs to the CS alone.


What is appetitive stimulus?

Any stimulus that is pleasant, positive, or rewarding.


What is an aversive stimulus?

Any stimulus that is unpleasant.


What is excitatory conditioning?

Positive relationship. When one event predicts that the second event will occur.


What is inhibitory conditioning?

Negative relationships. One event does not lead to another when it usually does.