Flashcards in Social Darwinism and Eugenics (3) Deck (36)
What did Charles Darwin publish in 1859?
His theory of evolution.
What did the theory of evolution propose?
It showed that in the animal world, species were continually evolving or changing. He proposed that this process occurred because of the ability of better-adapted species to flourish at the expense of less-well adapted one.
Who coined the term 'survival of the fittest'?
What did Herbert Spencer and other social scientists do?
Applied Darwin's there to humans, and called it Social Darwinism.
What did the creators of Social Darwinism believe?
They believed that the various human races were at different in the process of evolution.
What did Social Darwinism seem to offer and explanation for?
It seemed to offer a scientific explanation for the unequal levels of technology in different parts of the world.
What did Social Darwinists believe?
That there was a hierarchy of races, and that the Europeans were the most advanced because they had developed better technology and had conquered large parts of the world.
How did they use Social Darwinism to justify colonisation?
They used this belief to justify colonial expansion, believing that Europeans had a right to take land and force other people to work for them. They saw it as part of the process of the survival of the fittest.
How was Social Darwinism a misunderstanding of Darwin's theory?
Darwin believed that a whole species was constantly adapting to changing environments in the process of evolution. He did not suggest that there were superior societies, cultures or races.
True or false
Social Darwinists applied their theories within their own societies.
What did Social Darwinists believe about disabled people?
People with physical disabilities, or who were less intelligent, were at a lower level of development.
What did they believe in class-conscious Britain?
People thought that working-class people were less able than those from the upper classes.
How did Social Darwinists apply their ideas to capitalism within the USA?
They thought that the 'fittest' (the successful businessman) had triumphed over the unfit (the poor worker) because of differences in ability, not differences in opportunity.
Where does the word Eugenics come from?
Greek, and it means 'good genes'.
Who first developed Eugenics?
What idea did Galton promote?
It was wrong to protect the underprivileged and weak in society, since this went agains the principles of evolution and the survival of the fittest. Only those with good genes should be supported.
How did Eugenicists believe it was possible to produce better human beings?
By using the right kind of social policies.
Who did they encourage to have children?
People who had the right physical and mental characteristics should be encouraged to have children. In this way they thought that the quality of the general population would improve.
Many people, even in democracies, such as ___,____ and ___ ____ accepted the theories of eugenics.
What policies prevented 'racial decline'?
Positive policies to improve health, fitness and nutrition, hoping to prevent racial decline through better diet, fresh air and regular exercise.
How was evident the government supported these policies to improve health etc?
They build public swimming pools and sports grounds, promoting fitness as a national duty.
True or false
Women who were considered healthy were encouraged to have children
How did the government support healthy women?
Set up maternity clinics and family programmes.
There was also support for eugenics in countries like ___,____, and ____.
Eugenicists believed those with bad genes should be ___ from having children.
What were eugenicists alarmed about?
That social groups who were viewed as inferior, such as the poor, had high birth rates.
What did eugenicists try do, to reduce high birth artes among 'inferior' social groups?
Encouraged them to practise contraception and birth control. In some cases they supported compulsory abortion or sterilisation, or prohibited sexual relations among people they believed were unfit to become parents, such as mental patients or criminals.
What is sterilisation?
Surgery which makes it impossible to have children.
What did the law passed in 1913 in Britain entail?
Locked away mentally ill people in institutions to prevent them from having children.