Flashcards in Social Developments Deck (15):
How did living standards increase in 1951
Britain's infrastructure was run down by the war and badly needed modernising.
Pre war slums were cleared and new towns were build planned by labour in 1940.
The number of Privately owned cars increased
Men's weakly wage went up.
Farmers did well economically
Food rationing ended in 1954
Homeownership increased and as it was easier to get a mortgage. But those living in council houses and rented accommodation still out numbered those in privately rented houses.
What was the impact of affluence and consumerism in the 50s
-Higher ownership of consumer goods: TVs, washing machines, fridges, new furniture.
- between 1957 and 1959 the number of households owning a TV rose by 32% by 1960 there was ten million TVs sets in use- 50 percent of the population watched TV on an evening.
- people have more time and money to develop hobbies such as DIY and TV shows reflected these interests.
-boom in car ownership rose by 25% in 1957 and 1959- demand for new roads
- 60,000 people holidayed each week with Butlins. As people could afford to go away. Foreign holidays were still a luxury.
Why was their a shift in attitudes In the 50s of classes
The suez crisis in 1956 exposed blatant lying and manipulation from the government.
The CND from 1958 encouraged the tendency to challenge authority.
Britain appeared to be coming more individualists and less conformists society which was less willing to follow the lead set by Britians establishment.
Who were the establishments
The term for the informal networks that connected the social and political elites.
Included aristocracy, politicians, civil servants, judges, bishops, diplomats, officers in the armed forced and the leaders of businesses.
What was the 'satire boom'
Celebrities being slated through the media. In 1962 the ground breaking TV show ' that was the week that was' made a debut on BBC TV satirising and lampooning public figures.
Why was the establishment criticised
Britain was being held back by the ruling elite.
The conservative government between the 1951-64 was dominated by the establishment.
Lack of social mobility- believed Britain needed leaders who had earned their position through their personal merit and who better understood technical , modern age in which they where living in.
Who were the angry young men
A group of writers in the late 50s
Used art to attack the behaviour and attitudes of the establishment.
Produced plays and books and felt reflected contemporary society.
Sarcastic, bitter and bleak.
What was the position of women In the 50s
Wife and mother
Average marriage age was 21 and 75% of all women were married
1 in 5 women went to work
Family allowance was given to women so they didn't have to work.
Mortgage and bank accounts in men's name
Even in 1964 when the women in work rises it was still uncommon
Trade unions did not support women as they thought they would lower wages
For women who did work there were improvements - equal pay for teachers and civil servants
Work in the house came easier for the women- between 1957 and 1959 owning a washing machine rose by 54% and fridges by 58% - without a washing mechanise washing clothes took all day and without a fridge fresh food had to be bought each day.
Feminist argued in the U.S. that women were u filled and trapped by the home maker role abd this later spread to Britain in 1960s
What were the attitudes towards immigrants and racial violence In 50s
By 1958- 210,000 commonwealth immigrants had settled in Britain.
75% were male working to support there families back home.
West Indies was the largest number
Attitudes were mixed- some felt tolerance and got along with them others did not accept it showing acts of violence against immigrants.
There was outwards migration from Britain
In 1950 Britain relieved 676,000 immigrants while 1.32 million Britons left for life abroad.
In 1960- inward was 1.25 million and outwards was 1.92 million
The authorities saw immigration as economically desirable filling all the jobs that nobody wanted to do.
What was the Notting hill riots
August 1958- outbreaks of serious violence in Notting hill against immigrants. The area was run down. At first the attacks was mostly white youths attacking West Indians later there was violence in other directions. The police were unprepared and lacked experience dealing with race riots
What had cause social changes in Britain in 1951
What were people expecting for the future
What were some tensions in society
The experiences of the war
The introduction of the welfare state in the post war years.
Expectation- new modern Britain a world of technological and social progress.
Tensions- immigration and violence and changes in attitude to class
Who were teddy boys
Nickname that came from Edwardian fashion such as long coats narrow trousers and wrinklepicker shoes worn by young makes. The dress sense was seen as a challenge to older people and their ideas about social order
How did the emergence of the "teenagers" and youth culture effect society in the 50/60s
Young people had more time- new labour saving devices meant that girls did not need to help their mothers with the house work. And boys no longer had to take part in the national service by 1960.
Listened to different music, went to new coffee bars and dressed differently.
The post war boom messed the number of teenagers had swelled- 5 million (10 %)
Young people had more money
Radio spread the culture
Teddy boys were the most obvious youth culture linked with juvenile delinquency but in the 1950 they were replaced with the rockers and then the mods
What happened between the mods and rockers
Organised rioting in the south cost holiday resort if Clacton Margate and Brighton
In bright the fighting went of for 2 days were police struggled end to restore order.
This caused moral panic with descriptions of knife wielding hooligans. The levels of violence was exaggerated by the media