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Flashcards in Social And Cultural Change Deck (24):

What was the increase in TV owners from 1961 to 1971

In 1961 75% of the population had a TV in their home and by 1971 it was 91%


How did the TV cause changes

Money was diverted from radio to television guidelines on nudity and swearing where revised, a new style of music presentation and more popular programs were commissioned


What's allowed the expansion of advertising

The launch of ITV in 1955. Advertising could get straight into the family sitting room and 10 to customers with attractive models that reinforced the brand names of gods. BBC2 was launched in 1964 allowing BBC one to grow more populist and in 1967 BBC2 became the first channel to broadcast regular colour programs.


How did radios survive

By the development of the cheap and portable transmitters and the spread of car radios. These together with a long life battery and earphones meant that radios could be taken out all listen to in the privacy of the bedroom. Teenagers no longer had to sit and listen to what their parents wanted to hear and personal radios meant that program could be targeted at different audiences.

Young people started to listen tonight liberal cast of pop music and from 1964 the pirate stations. After the pirate station was banned Radio One was created.


What happened to newspapers and magazines during that increase of televisions

Those that survived changed and grew stronger. The sun launched in 1964 replacing the serious working class newspaper. The sun included more permissive attitudes of the edge and its popularity grew enormously.


What were the 1960s leisure activities

Leisure time expanded by the 1960s as fewer people were expected to work on Saturday morning is and weekends could be given over to leisure activities.
By 1969, TVs accounted for 23% of leisure time. DIY and gardening became popular hobbies. Cookery needlework and knitting still had a place in the 1960s homes.
Live theatre and attendance at football matches suffered.


How did car ownership change leisure activities.

Car ownership accelerated rapidly in the 1960s. Passenger bus, court in train travel declined as the use of the car grew to account for 77% of journeys by 1974. Technological improvements meant that cars had become more affordable. Cars permitted travel to Alternative shopping centres and leisure facilities and activities from caravanning to golf and sailing all built up I devoted following.


How many people went abroad

Cost of their travel meant that for most of the 1960s holidays abroad was still largely for the middle classes. Package holidays were still in their infancy.
Although the total number of holidays had grown from under 4% in 1966 to 8.4% in 1971.


What was the impact of scientific developments on the society.

In 1961 the first person had gone into space and by 1969 the United States had landed on the moon. The Labour government had made scientific developments a key aim. That Anglo-French partnership developed aircraft. The post office tower, then the tallest building in Britain opened in 1965 to improve telecommunications.


How was censorship reduced in theatre

New style of players often addressing social issues letter clashes with the office of the Lord Chamberlain. New players had to get a license from the Lord chamberlains office. Office could demand that materials that were inappropriate are immoral was removed. Do you to owners could be prosecuted if a player did not have approval.
But George Strauss introduced a bill to abolish the theatrical censorship with Roy Jenkins support.
This permitted nudity on stage and the more act was celebrated by 13 members of the cast hair stood up and face the audience naked for 30 seconds in 1968


How did TV develop more liberal attitudes

As the 1960s progressed issues of sex, violence, politics and religion which had previously been banned or considered u situate got public broadcasting were tackled.


How was progress to female equality in 1960

The belief that the duty of a woman was to be a good wife and mother remained strong for most of the 1960s
Second wave feminism had started in the United States which argued that women were unfilled with restricted lives. This thread to Britain where the growth in female education resulted in a growing frustration. Women accounted for only 28% of students in higher education in 1970 and only 5% of women ever reached managerial posts.
Most of the available jobs for women were in service sector with no prospects and poor pay. Working mothers were still portrayed as unnatural and selfish by the media childminders where are rare and private nurseries for only available for the wealthy.
The national health Service act of 1967 allow the local authorities to provide contraceptives and contraceptive advice for the first time. Change in attitudes meant that the number of illegitimate births rose from 5.8% in 1968.2% in 1970 and the number of marriages ending in divorce rose.
Feminism was in courage by articles and a number of women's lib groups sprung up around the UK to campaign for social and economic equality for women.
In 1969 the woman's national coordination committee had their first conference where for demands were put forward; equal pay, free contraception and abortion on the request, equal education and job opportunities, free 24 hour childcare


How might be said that the feminist movement did not really make much headway until the 1970s

Inequalities and discrimination still existed and the traditional stereotyping of rolls remain strong. Times are changing but the 1960s where a period of evolution not revolution for women.


What is meant by the permissive society

Refers to a time of general sexual liberation is which changes in public and private morals and the new openness. Critics use the term in a negative way believing it was a decline in moral standards encouraged by the contraceptive pill the spread of mass media and liberal legalisations. By the end of the 1960s rates of sexual transmitted infections were on the rise especially among the young. There was also the spread of the drug culture. Cocaine and heroin addiction became 10 times more prevalent in the first half of the 1960s. The hippy lifestyle promoted the drug culture and even the Beatles turn to LSD.


What was the dangerous drug act 1967

Made it on lawful to process drugs such as cannabis and cocaine. In 1970 the maximum sentence for supplying drugs was increased to 14 years imprisonment.


What created a youth generation

Increased living standards, the spread of education and the growth of leisure time.


How many be argued that the youth culture was over exaggerated

Alcohol and caffeine will use more than illegal drugs and according to a survey in 1969 young people spend more time listening to music in their bedrooms than at youth clubs are rock festivals.


How were trends spread around the youth culture

Televisions responded to demands with programs like ready steady goal which helped spread the latest trends in music, dance, jargon, attitude and dress. New technology that enables cheap plastic record players and records make music accessible.


What were the different youth subcultures by the end of 1960

Skinheads characterised by their shaven heads, braces and doc Martin boots had evolved from the mods.
Hippies rejected social convention and establishment attitudes. They embraced flower power from America- emphasis on environmentalism, free love and peace.


What were the anti-Vietnam war riots

What did they show

You've culture and political activism merged in opposition to the Vietnam war in the late 1960s. In 1968 there were violent scenes at in anti-Vietnam war demonstration in London. My violent protests took place one known as the battle of Gosvenor with over 200 people being arrested. The final demonstration in October 1968 in which 30,000 people took part was relatively peaceful.
The year 1968 saw a number of other anti-war protest with demands for more student power. A speaker on the Vietnam War from the American ambassy was covered in red paint. Well at Essex to Conservative MPs were physically attacked. Dennis Healey almost had his car overturned by Cambridge students.

Aggression and potential danger of the youths


What were the opinions and attitudes regarding immigration and race

Social tension from the new Commonwealth did not go away. I said there in North London in 1965 showed that one in five object to working with black people are Asians, have said they will refuse to live next door to a black person and 9/10 disapproved mix marriage.
Although Enoch Powell was sacked from the Conservative party because of his racist speech Apollo found that 75% of the population supported what he said.


What was the 1965 race relation act

This forbid discrimination in public places on the grounds of colour race or ethnic or national origins. However discrimination in housing and employment were excluded. Complaints were to be referred to the race relations board whose job was to conciliate Between the two sides.


What ventilation Abt was further introduced in 1968

This act and then banned discrimination in housing, employment, insurance and other services. However the race relations board upheld on the temper sent of the 1041 complaints it received about discriminatory employment, but the number of complaints remains low because victims had little faith in getting effective redress.


What were the positive aspects to immigration

The Notting Hill carnival became an annual event from 1964. The appearance of Asian cornershops and Chinese takeaway is introduced new food stuffs. Youth cultures also drew from the ethnic communities in music, fashion and streetlife. Hippies of the late 1960s what Indian and African cotton and ethnic beads. Others enjoyed West Indian styles of music.