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Flashcards in Social History of poverty Deck (21)
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1
Q

What did classical economists overlook?

A

Future changes and underlying processes

2
Q

What, in general terms, did the poor laws do?

A

Created a deserving and undeserving poor

3
Q

When were the “new” poor laws?

A

The poor law of 1834

4
Q

What is a good example of poverty conditions in the 20th century?

A

Robert Tressell Ragged Trousered Philanthropists

5
Q

When was the old poor law established?

A

During the reign of Elizabeth 1st

6
Q

What forms of welfare existed under the old poor law?

A
  • Charities
  • Parishes
  • Uneven welfare provisioning by parish
7
Q

How was uneven provisioning of welfare under the old poor law exacerbated by urbanisation?

A

Population increased in cities, where less social welfare could be distributed per person

Led to Malthus’ ideas

8
Q

What was Adam Smith’s main focus?

A

Specialisation of specific processes

  • “division of labour”
  • Productivity and competition
  • Agriculture created biological limit to potential

(Smith 1776)

9
Q

What was David Ricardo’s main focus?

A
  • Comparative advantage of international trade

- Diminishing marginal returns as population grows

10
Q

Why did Ricardo say marginal returns decrease as population growth increases?

A

More marginal land needed as population grows (links to Malthus), but causes quality to decrease, so lower returns

A rational for neo-Malthusians who focus on poverty in rural areas

11
Q

Did Malthus hate the poor?

A

No, he saw population growth as causing more pressures to be put on the poor - they were vulnerable to something beyond their control

It just led to blame being put on the poor through family planning and reducing ecological footprints etc

12
Q

Who has highlighted that the photosynthetic constraint is not absolute? Why?

A

Wrigley 2004

Fossil fuel use allowed technology to increase agricultural production, transport and storage

13
Q

Why was the “new” poor law created in 1834?

A

Old one was costly - more urban population and ambiguous criteria

14
Q

Why was outdoor relief criticised during the “old” poor law?

A

People seen as lazy if not doing work (links to contemporary benefits) + contributed to pop growth

15
Q

What was the idea behind discipline in the workhouses?

A

To make people able-bodied workers because being poor was viewed as their fault, something which could be fixed

16
Q

What is the irony of workhouses?

A
  • Costly and ineffective
  • LAIZZES-FAIRE on one hand for markets, but STATE control and spending in the workhouses

Driver 2004

17
Q

What is a panopticon?

A

A prison designed to instil fear, forcing people to regulate themselves (Williams 2020)

18
Q

How were workhouses represented as moral?

A
  • Fixing and mending bodies
  • To protect other bodies in society
  • For the protection of civil society
  • Foe economic benefits through increasing the number of workers etc (overlooks basic principles…)

Williams 2020

19
Q

How did workhouses contribute to the creation of a two-tier system?

A
  • Wealthy cared for by the state, institutions and workers

- The poor were imprisoned and disciplined in the workhouse

20
Q

What does Tressell compare the workhouse to?

A

The grave - meant that discipline also occurred through work itself out of fear of workhouses

21
Q

What does the history of the poor laws highlight?

A
  • Shapes present day welfare
  • The persistence of frameworks and discourses (Foucault 1969)
  • Reflects on the past vis-a-vis the present