# **Social Inequality - Defining Inequality Flashcards

Defining Inequality:

Groups / Individuals / Experiences of inequality & areas of social inequality

- Social class
- Age (young & old)
- Gender
- Ethnicity
- Single parents
- Education
- Educational attainment stats

- Family
- Instrumental / Expressive gender roles

- Employment
- Health
- Inverse care law

- Crime & deviance
- CAGE differences

Defining Inequality:

Patterns / Trends of wealth inequality in the UK

Official data: all incomes have risen since the 1980s, wealthy incomes = increased significantly more than average incomes

Figures suggest poor paid more of their income tax than the wealthy

- Much tax = hidden: forms part of the price of goods that are brought in shops rather than being deducted from wages

Defining Inequality:

A. H. Halsey - Definition of inequality

Equality of Opportunity

Equality of Outcome

Inequality of Opportunity

Inequality of Outcome

Defining Inequality:

A. H. Halsey - Equality of Opportunity / Outcome

Equality of Opportunity: All have equal opportunity to succeed

Equality of Outcome: People appear in institutions in society in the same proportion in which they appear in the whole of society

Defining Inequality:

A. H. Halsey - Inequality of Opportunity / Outcome

Inequality of Opportunity: People are banned from experiencing certain opportunities because of legalistic or structural reasons

- Becoming increasingly rare in British society as policies and social engineering since 1970s have made it difficult to deny people opportunity for any reason
- E.g. Apartheid in South Africa
- A way of legalisation that upheld segregation against non-white citizens of South Africa

Inequality of Outcome: Restrictions on people become covert so that in theory, there is no limit to how people progress in society, in practical terms, few people from certain groups do actually break through social barriers placed in their way

Defining Inequality:

A. H. Halsey Example

Equality of opportunity prevalent in British society: legalisation to prevent discrimination against disadvantaged groups (women have the right to earn the same as men for work)

- Average income for a woman remains 16% that of men in the UK
- Legal equality of opportunity
- Gross inequality of outcome

Defining Inequality:

Ferdinand & Mount

Identified 5 broad areas of inequality (Joseph Rowntree Foundation)

- Inequality of wealth

- Inequality of participation in society

- Inequality of access to power

- Inequality of outcome

- Inequality of opportunity

Defining Inequality:

Ferdinand & Mount - Inequality of Wealth

Defining Inequality:

Ferdinand & Mount - Inequality of Participation in Society

Defining Inequality:

Ferdinand & Mount - Inequality to Access to Power

Defining Inequality:

Ferdinand & Mount - Inequality of Outcome

Defining Inequality:

Ferdinand & Mount - Inequality of Opportunity

Defining Inequality:

Relative / Abstract Concept

Inequality = Relative concept

To be unequal, some must have more than others

Inequality = Abstract concept

Almost impossible to make a direct measurement of inquality