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1

Procedure on Asch conformity study

Confederates deliberately gave wrong answers to see if participant would conform, on a judging the length of lines test.

2

Findings Asch conformity study

Naive participants conformed on 36.8% of trials

25% Never conformed

3

Variations of Asch conformity study

Group Size-Conformity increased up to 4 confederates
Unanimity-Dissenter presence reduced conformity
Task difficulty-Conformity increased when harder

4

Downsides of Asch conformity study

5 Points

A Child of its time- Perrin and Spencer found less conformity in 1980's than in 50's.

Artificial situation and task- Demand characteristics meant that participants just played along with trivial task.

Limited application of findings-Asch's research only conducted on American men.

Findings only apply to certain situations.

Ethical issues-deceived naive participants

5

What was the Stanford Prison Experiment on?

Conformity to Social roles by Zimbardo

6

Procedure of Stanford Prison Experiment

Mock prison with students randomly assigned as guards or prisoners

7

Findings of Stanford Prison Experiment

Guards became increasingly brutal, prisoners increasingly withdrawn and depressed.

8

Conclusions of Stanford Prison Experiment

Participants conformed to their roles as guards or prisoners.

9

Strengths of Stanford Prison Experiment

Strong control, such as random assignment to roles this increases the internal validity of findings.

10

Weaknesses of Stanford Prison Experiment

Lack of Realism-participants were play-acting their roles according to media-derived stereotypes.

Dispositional influences- Only one third of guards were brutal so conclusions of study were exaggerated.

Lack of research support

Ethical issues with study, psychological harm.

11

Types of conformity

Internalisation

Identification

Compliance

12

Internalisation

Private and public acceptance of group norms.

13

Identification

Change behaviour to be part of a group we identify with

14

Compliance

Go along with group publicity but no private change.

15

Conformity

Conformity is yielding to group pressures

16

Explanations for conformity

Informational social influence

Normative social influence

17

Informational social influence

Conforming to be right, we assume others know better than us.

18

Normative social influence

Conforming to be liked or accepted by group.

19

Evidence supporting informational social influence

Research support, study showed more conformity to incorrect maths answers when they were difficult, as predicted by ISI.

20

Obedience

Obedience is due to pressures in the situation

21

Situational variables affecting Obedience Milgram study

Proximity

Location

Uniform

22

Proximity affect on Obedience

Obedience decreased to 40% when teacher could hear learner, and to 30% in touch proximity condition.

23

Location affect on Obedience

Obedience dropped to 47.5% when study was moved to run-down office block.

24

Uniform affect on Obedience

Obedience decreased to 20% when 'member of the public' was the experimenter

25

Researching supporting Uniform affect on Obedience

Bickman showed power of uniform in field of experiment, Milkman and Traffic Warden asked to pick up litter more obeyed when it was Traffic Warden.

26

Evidence against Situational variables affecting obedience study

Lack of internal validity, some of Milgram's procedures contrived, so not genuine obedience.

Although cross-cultural findings may support Milgram, almost in similar cultures to USA so not very generalisable.

27

Milgram's original obedience study procedure

Participants gave fake electric shocks to a 'learner' in obedience to instructions from the 'experimenter'.

28

Milgram's original obedience study findings

65% gave highest shock of 450v

100% gave shocks up to 300v

Many showed signs of anxiety

29

Evidence supporting Milgram's original obedience study

Good external validity, findings generalise to other situations such as hospital ward study where 21/22 nurses followed doctors orders even though it was above recommended dosage.

Supporting Replication, Game of Death found 80% gave maximum shock plus similar behaviour to Milgram's participants.

30

Evidence against Milgram's obedience study

Low internal validity, participants realised shocks were false as said by assistant to Milgram after study.