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1

Research on encoding

Baddeley study found short term memory encoded acoustically, LTM memory encoded semantically

2

Evaluate research on encoding

Artificial stimuli Baddeley word lists had no personal significance.

3

Memory capacity study

Miller, 7+/-2 span, putting items together extends STM capacity

4

Evaluate Memory capacity findings

Lacking validity could be extraneous variables such as distractions

Cowan, estimated STM as about four chunks.

5

Research on STM duration

Peterson and Peterson, STM lasts up to 18 seconds without rehearsal.

6

Research on LTM duration

Bahrick et al recognition of faces 90% after 15 years, recall 60%.

Recognition dropped to 70% after 48 years.

7

What is multi story memory model?

A representation of memory with three stores, sensory register, short-term memory, long term memory.

8

Sensory register as part of the MSM

Iconic and echoic stores with very brief duration, high capacity

Transfer to short term memory by attention.

9

Short-term memory as part of MSM

Limited capacity and duration store, mainly acoustically coded.

Transfer to LTM by rehearsal.

10

Long term memory as part of MSM

Unlimited capacity and duration, permanent store. Mainly semantic.

Created through maintenance rehearsal.

11

Evidence supporting MSM

Supporting research evidence, many studies into coding capacity and duration demonstrate differences between STM and LTM.

12

Evidence against MSM

There is more than one type of STM, studies of amnesia e.g. KF show different STMs for visual and auditory material.

There is more than one type of rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal necessary for transfer to LTM, not maintenance rehearsal.

More than one type of LTM.

13

Types of Long term memory

Episodic memory

Semantic memory

Procedural memory

14

Episodic memory

Memory for events in our lives a 'diary'

15

Semantic memory

Memory for knowledge of the world, like an encyclopaedia and dictionary. Includes language.

16

Procedural memory

Memory for automatic and often skilled behaviours.

17

Evidence supporting different types of long term memory?

Clinical evidence, Clive Wearing and HM had damaged episodic memories but semantic and procedural memories were fine.

Neuroimaging evidence, episodic and procedural memories recalled from different parts of the prefrontal cortex.

There has been real world applications such as training programme's for adults with mild cognitive impairments.

18

Working memory model

Baddeley and Hitch suggested,
STM as being composed of various separate but inter-related stores where different types of operations are performed on incoming information by different parts of STM before being passed onto the LTM or forgotten.

19

Working memory model STM composed of

Central executive

Phonological loop

Visuospatial sketchpad

Episodic buffer.

20

Central executive

Co-ordinates slave systems and allocates resources, very limited storage.

21

Phonological loop

Deals with auditory information and has a limited capacity.

Sub-divided into phonological store and articulatory process.

22

Visuo-spatial sketchpad

Inner eye, holds visual and spatial information.

23

Episodic buffer

Temporary storage area which combines and brings together information received from the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial sketchpad and the central executive.

24

Evidence supporting working memory model

Clinical evidence study, KF had poor auditory memory but good visual memory. Damaged phonological loop but visual-spatial sketchpad fine.

Baddeley et al, dual task performance difficult to do two visual tasks at same time, but one visual and one verbal is ok.

25

Evidence against working memory model.

Lack of validity over central executive, it's not fully explained and most likely has different components.

26

Two explanations for forgetting

Interference

Retrieval failure

27

Interference

Information heard either before or after another piece of information causing poorer recall of this information.

28

Proactive interference

Old memories disrupt new ones.

29

Retroactive interference

New memories disrupt old ones.

30

Interference explanation for forgetting study

McGeoch and McDonald found that similarity of information causes increased interference and forgetting.