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Support for ISI-Lucas-Method

He asked students to give answers to mathematical problems that were easy or more difficult


Support for ISI-Lucas-Results

There was greater conformity to conform to incorrect answers when they were difficult rather when they were easy questions. Shows why people conform in situations where they do not know the answer



He showed participants two large white cards at a time. One card was a standard line and on the other card there were 3 comparison lines. One of the 3 lines were the same length as the standard line, and the other two were clearly wrong. The participant was asked which line matched the standard line. 123 Male American Undergraduate students took part, and they were tested in a group with 6 to 8 confederate. On the first few trails, the confederates gave the right answer, but then they started to make errors.



36.8% of participants gave a wrong answer. 25% did not conform, 75% conformed at least once



-Artificial task
-Limited Application
-Ethical Issues


Conformity to Social Roles-Zimbardo-Method

He set up a mock prison in the basement of Stanford's psychology department. He advertised for students to take part and chose those who were emotionally stable. They were randomly assigned the roles of guards and prisoners. The prisoners were arrested in their homes,blindfolded,strip searched, deloused and then given a uniform and number. The guards had their own uniform and were told that they had complete power over the prisoners, even deciding when they could use to toilet.


Conformity to Social Roles-Zimbardo-Results

After a slow start, the guards took to their role. The behaviour became a risk to the prisoners health, so the experiment was stopped after 6 days, not adter 14. Within 2 days, the prisoners rebelled against their treatment, they ripped their uniform and shouted and swore at the guards. The guards employed a divide and conquer tactic, sometimes by playing prisoners against each other. They constantly harassed the prisoners, and reminded them that they were always being monitored. The guards punished even the smallest misdemeanour. After the rebellion was put down, the prisoners became subdued. One was released on day 1 as he showed signs of disturbance. 2 more were released on day 4. One prisioner went on a hunger strike. The guards attempted to force feed him, and then punished him by putting in the "hole", a small dark closet. He was then shunned by the other prisoners. The guards become more and more aggressive as they identified with their roles, with some enjoying the power they had


Conformity to Social Roles-Zimbardo-Evaluation

+Control over some variables
-Lack of Realism
-Role of Dispositional influences
-Ethical Issues



40 Male participants were recruited through newspaper adverts. They were told that they were taking part in a memory study. They were 20-50 and they had a variety of jobs. They were paid $4.50 when they arrived at the lab. There was a rigged draw for the role of teacher and learner. They were always the teacher, and Mr Wallace (a confederate) was always the learner. The learner was strapped into a chair in another room and wired with electrodes. The teacher was required to give electric shocks to the learner when they got the question wrong. Before the experiment, the shocks were demonstrated to the teacher, and Mr Wallace told the experimenter (a man in a white coat) that he had a heart condition. Thereafter, the shocks were fake. The shocks started at 15V, and rose by 15v To 450V. At 300V, the learner pounded on the wall and gave no response. After the 315V shock, he again pounded on the wall, but it was silent after that. When the teacher turned to the experimenter for advice, he told him to take no response as a wrong answer. If the teacher was unsure, the experimenter would reply with either
-Please continue
-The experiment requires you to continue
-It is absolutely essential that you continue
-You have no other choice, you must go on



No one stopped before 300V. 5 stopped at 300V. 65% continued to 450V. Participants showed extreme anxiety, stress and 3 had a full blown uncontrollable seizure



+Low Internal Validity
+Good External Validity
+Supporting Replication-The Game of Death
-Ethical Issues


Obedience-Milgrams Variations-Results

65%-Original Study
47.5%-Change of location to a run down office
40%-Teacher and Learner in same room
30%-Teacher forces learners hand on to plate
20.5%-Experimenter gave orders by phone
20%-Experimenter was played by a member of public


Obedience-Milgrams Variations-Evaluation

+Supporting Researcher
-Lacks Internal Validity
+/-Cross Cultural Applications


Research to Support Milgram-Bickman-Method

He had three confederates dress up in 3 different outfits. Jacket and tie, A milkman and a security guard. They stood in the street and asked passers by to perform tasks such as picking up litter


Research to Support Milgram-Bickman-Results

People were twice as likely to obey the security guard than the one dressed in the jacket and tie


Research to support the Agentic State-Blass and Schmitt-Method

They showed a film of Milgrams study and asked them to identify who they through was to blame for harming Mr Wallace


Research to support the Agentic State-Blass and Schmitt-Resluts

They blamed the experimenter rather than the partcipant


Legitimacy of Authority in different cultures -Kilham and Mann-Method

They replicated Milgrams study in Australia


Legitimacy of Authority in different cultures-Kilham and Mann-Results

Only 16% went to the top of the voltage scale


Legitimacy of Authority in different cultures- Mantell-Method

He replicated Milgrams Study in Germany


Legitimacy of Authority in different cultures -Mantell-Results

85% went to the top of the voltage scale


Dispositional Explanations-Adorno-Method

He studies the unconscious attitudes towards racial group of more than 2000 middle class, white Americans. He developed numerous scales to measure this, including the F-SCALE (F stands for Fascist), which is used to see if someone has the authoritarian personality


Dispositional Explanations-Adorno-Results

People who scored high on the F-SCALE identified with strong people and were generally contemptuous of the weak. They were very conscious of their own and others status. Adorno found out that they have a cognitive style, where there was no fuzziness between categories of people. He also found a link between authoritarianism and prejudice


Resistance to Conformity-Allen and Levine-Results

Conformity decreased when there was one deserter in an Asch like study. This occurred even when the deserter was in no fit state to read the lines


Supports LOC-Holland-Method

He repeated Milgrams study and measured if participants were internals or externals


Supports LOC-Holland-Results

37% of internals did not reach the highest voltage, only 23% of externals did not reach the highest voltage


Supports Consistancy-Wood-Method

Carried out a meta-analysis of almost 100 studys similar to Moscovici's


Supports Consistancy-Wood-Results

Consistent minorities were the most influential


Supports Depth of Thought-Martin-Method

Partcipants were given a viewpoint and their support was measured. Then, one group was given a majorities view that agreed with the viewpoint, and one was given a minorities view that disagreed with the viewpoint.


Supports Depth of Thought-Martin-Results

When they were measured again, people were less willing to change their opinion if they listened to a minority group rather than a majorities group