Research Methods Evaluations-AS Only Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Research Methods Evaluations-AS Only Deck (58):
1

Laboratory Experiments-Strengths

-High control over extraneous -High external validity
-Can be replicated-increases validity of results

2

Laboratory Experiments-Weaknesses

-Lacks Generalisations-Artificial environment/task
-Participants may behave natural-demand characteristics and low external validity
-Low mundane realism because of not everyday task

3

Field Experiments-Strengths

-High mundane realism-natural environment
-More valid and natural behaviour-high external validity

4

Field Experiment-Weaknesses

-Extraneous variables are not controlled-difficult to see cause and effect
-Can't be fully replicated
-Ethical issues as participants are not fully aware of participation-cannot consent-invasion of privacy?

5

Natural Experiments-Strengths

-Provides research opportunities for studies that may not happen for ethical reasons
-High external validity-looks at real life issues and problems

6

Natural Experiments-Weaknesses

-Naturally occurring event may be rare-hard to generalise
-Participants may not be randomly allocated-Unsure if IV affected the DV

7

Quasi Experiments-Strengths

-High control over extraneous -High external validity
-Can be replicated-increases validity of results

8

Quasi Experiments-Weaknesses

-Confounding Variables can occur-Cannot randomly allocate participants to conditions

9

Independent Groups Design-Strength

-No order effects or Demand Characteristics
-Easy to allocate participants to groups-Uses Random Allocation

10

Independent Groups Design-Weaknesses

-Chance that the groups are unbalanced-could have participant variables
-Less economical-Two different sets of participants

11

Repeated Measures Design-Strengths

-No participant variables-Same participants in both conditions
-Economical-Only one set of participants are required

12

Repeated Measures Design-Weaknesses

-Demand Characteristics-Partcipants might predict the aim of the study before the second condition
-Order Effects-Experiment is done twice
-Learning could occur

13

Matched Pairs Design-Strength

No order effects-Partcipants only experience one condition

14

Matched Pairs Design-Weaknesses

-Partcipants might not be matched with 100% accuracy-Partcipant variables could still occur
-Matching the participants is time consuming and costly-less economic

15

Random Sampling-Strength

-Free from researcher bias-The researcher cannot pick the participants for each condition

16

Random Sampling-Weaknesses

-Difficut and time consuming to fully randomize the participants
-Chance of bias-Due to laws of probability
-Partcipants could refuse to participate

17

Systematic Sampling-Strengths

-Avoids researcher bias-follows a pattern
-Provides a fairly representative sample

18

Systematic Sampling-Weaknesses

-Partcipants could work out the pattern if it is not fully random
-The participant could refuse to participate

19

Stratified Sampling- Strengths

-Avoids researcher bias- They can't choose the participants
-Provides a representative sample of the target population-Generalisation can occur

20

Stratified Sampling-Weaknesses

-Complete representation of the target population is not always possible due to individual differences
-Partcipant could refuse to participate

21

Opportunity Sampling-Strength

-Quick and cheap to get participants

22

Opportunity Sampling-Weaknessess

-Unrepresentative sample-All participants come from the same area
-Researcher bias-They choose the participants
-Partcipants could refuse to participate

23

Volunteer Sample-Strengths

-Easy to get a sample- "They come to you"

24

Volunteer Sample-Weaknesses

-Volunteer bias-a certain type of person may be attracted-affects generalisation
-Partcipants may refuse to participate

25

Naturalistic Observation-Strength

-High ecological validity as behaviour occurs naturally in its natural environment-Easy to generalize

26

Naturalistic Observations-Weaknessess

-Hard to replicate-Lack of control
-Uncontrolled Extraneous Variables

27

Controlled Observations-Strengths

-Replicable- Highly controlled
-Extraneous Variables have little effect

28

Controlled Observation-Weakness

-Findings cannot be generalised

29

Covert Observation-Strength

-All natural behaviour is on show as the participants don't know that they are being observed-Increases the validity

30

Covert Observation-Weakness

-Ethical issues- Privacy and Consent

31

Overt Observation-Strength

-Less ethical issues-Partcipants know they are being observed

32

Overt Observation-Weakness

-As they know that they are being observed-Demand Characteristics and Non natural behaviour could occur

33

Structured Observation-Strengths

-Easy to record behaviour-Uses behavioural categories
-Produces Quantitative Data-Easy to analyse

34

Structured Observation-Weaknesses

-Less detailed results

35

Unstructured Observation-Strength

-Infomation is more detailed

36

Unstructured Observation-Weaknesses

-Provides qualitative data-harder to analyse
-High chance of observer bias-they pick behaviour to analyse-No behaviour categories

37

Event Sampling-Strength

-Useful when the event frequently occurs

38

Event Sampling-Weakness

-Observer may overlook details and behaviours if they are too complex

39

Time Sampling-Strength

-Reduces the number of investigations that have to occur

40

Time Sampling-Weakness

-An observed behaviour may unrepresentative of the investigation as a whole

41

Questionnaires-Strengths

-Cost effective
-Can be completed without a researcher
-Quantitative data produced-Easy to analyse and compare

42

Questionnaires-Weaknesses

-Social Desirability Bias-People could lie to be more socially desirable
-Response Bias-A person could just tick the same box

43

Structured Interview-Strengths

-Straightforward and easy to replicate
-Data is easy to analyse

44

Structured Interview-Weaknesses

-Interviewer cannot deviate from the set of questions-this annoys and frustrates them

45

Unstructured Interview-Strength

-More flexibility-follow up questions can be asked

46

Unstructured Interview-Weaknesses

-Data is harder to analyse
-People may lie on their responses-Social desirability bias

47

Correlations-Strengths

-Can be used as a preliminary tool or as a starting point for research
-Quick and economical
-Can use secondary data

48

Correlations-Weaknesses

-Can only tell us how variables are related, but not why
-"Third-Variable Problem"-a untested variable affecting one or both co-variables

49

Qualitative Data-Strengths

-More detail
-More external validity- provides researchers with participants insight

50

Qualitative Data-Weaknesses

-Harder to analyse
-Patterns can be hard to identify
-Conclusions are based on subjective interpretation

51

Quantitative Data-Strengths

-Simple to analyse
-Easy to find patterns
-More objective

52

Quantitative Data-Weaknesses

-Narrower- less detail
-Fails to represent "real-life"

53

Primary Data-Strengths

-Obtained from the participants themselves
-Collected in multiple ways

54

Primary Data-Weakness

-Requires time and effort to produce data as experiment has to be done

55

Secondary Data-Strengths

-Inexpensive and quick to access
-Might be no need to conduct a study as data might be enough

56

Secondary Data-Weaknesse

-Large variation of quantity of secondary data- it could be out-dated or have many flaws

57

Peer Review-Strengths

-Established validity in the research
-Makes sure research is accurate

58

Peer Review-Weaknesses

-Anomity-Other can use it as a chance to get revenge on someone
-Publication Bias- journals only publish works that they like- creates a false impression of the state of psychology
-Burying ground-breaking research-they try to maintain the status-quo within certain areas