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Flashcards in Social Process Theory Deck (40):
1

Social Process Theory

Theories suggesting that criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others and that socialization and learning processes occur as the result group membership and relationships.

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Social Process Theories

1) Social Learning theories
2)Labeling Theory
3)Social Control Theories

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Social Learning Theories

A perspective that places primary emphasis upon the role of communication and socialization in the acquisition of learned patterns of criminal behavior and the values that support that behavior.

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Differential Association Theory

Suggest that all significant human behavior is learned and that crime, therefore, is not substantively different from any other form of behavior.

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Social Learning Theory

Criminal behavior can not only be learned in social interactions with other humans who reinforce or discriminate against certain behaviors, but it can also be learned in a non-social context where the environment either reinforces or discriminates against behaviors.

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Social Learning Theory has four components

1) Differential Association
2)Definitions
3)Imitations
4)Differential Reinforcements

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Differential Association

The relationship humans have with others

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Defenitions

Favorable or unfavorable to the violation of the law

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Imitation

Occurs when a person observes another and decides to mimic the behavior

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Differential Reinforcement

The perceived or actual consequences of a behavior.

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Social Control Theories

*Ask why people obey rules instead of breaking them
*Predict that when social constraints on antisocial behavior are weakened or absent, delinquent behavior emerges.

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Reckless Containment Theory

A form of control theory that suggest that a series of both internal and external factors contribute to law abiding behavior

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Containment

The stabilizing force that, if effective, blocks pushes and pulls from leading an individual towards crime.

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External Containment

the holding power of the group

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Internal Containment

the ability of the person to follow the expected norms, to direct himself.

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Reckless Containment Theory

*A focus on socially approved goals help keep people on the straight and narrow path

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Pushes Towards Crime

Factors in an individuals background that might propel him or her into criminal behavior

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Pull Toward Crime

Signifies all the perceived rewards crime may offer
*Financial gain, sexual satisfaction, and higher status

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Delinquency and Self Esteem

Howard Kaplan- Proposed that people who are ridiculed by their peers suffer a loss of self-esteem, assess themselves poorly, and abandon the motivation to conform.

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Social Bond Theory

Argued that through successful socialization, a bond forms between individuals and the social group.

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4 Components of Social Bond

1)Attachment
2)Commitment
3)Involvement
4)Belief

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General Theory of Crime

A Theory that attempts to explain all forms of criminal conduct through a single, overarching approach and holds that low self-esteem accounts for all crimes at all times.

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General Theory of Crime is based on the belief that

Crime is a natural consequence of unrestrained human tendencies to seek pleasure and avoid pain.

*Also defines self-control as the degree to which a person is vulnerable to temptations of the moment.

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Self control is fostered through parental emotional investment in the child, which includes:

1) Recognizing deviance when it occurs
2)Punishing the child for the deviance appropriately
3)Consistency in the recognition and punishment

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Control Balance Theory

A blend of social bond and containment perspectives

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Control Ration

Is the amount of control to which a person is subjective versus the amount of control that person exerts over others.

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Control Ratio is said to predict

not only the probability that one will engage in deviance but also the specific form that deviance will take.

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Labeling Theory

Society's response o known or suspect offenders determines the individual future incidences of criminality by reducing the behavioral options available to labeling offenders.

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Tagging

What happens to offenders following arrest, conviction, and sentencing.

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Primary Deviance

An offenders initial acts of deviance

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Secondary Deviance

The offenders continued acts of deviance

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Moral Enterprise

The efforts made by an interest group to have its sense of moral ethical propriety enacted into law.

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Moral Entrepreneurs

Individuals or groups engaged in the process of moral enterprise

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Typology of Labeling

*Pure Deviant (appropriately punished)
*The Secret Deviant (not punished)
*Falsely Accused Deviant (inappropriately punished)

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Social Process Theories

Suggest that crime prevention programs should work to enhance self control and to build pro-social bonds.

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Prosocial Bonds

Bonds between the individual and the social group that strengthen the likelihood of conformity.

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Pro-social Bonds are characterized by

attachments to conventional social institutions, values, and beliefs

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Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP)

A program that places at-risk youth in one on one relationship with favorable adult role models

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Preparing for the Drug-Free Years (PDFY)

A program designed to increase effective parenting for their children in grades 4-8 in an effort to reduce drug abuse and behavioral problems

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Montreal Prevention Treatment Program

A program designed to address early childhood risk factors for gang involvement by targeting boys in kindergarten who exhibit disruptive behavior.