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Flashcards in Social Structure Deck (52):
1

Sociological Theories

A group perspective that focus on the nature of the power relationship that exist between social groups and on the the influences that various social phenomena bring to bear on the types of behaviors that tend to characterize groups of people.

2

What are the major sociological approaches to crime causation?

*Social Structure
*Social Process
*Social Conflict

3

Social Structure Theories

*Explain crime by reference to some aspect of the social fabric.
*See various formal and informal arrangements between social groups as the root causes of crime and deviance
*Predict the negative aspects of societal structures such as disorganization within family, poverty, or income inequality.

4

Social Disorganization Theory

*A perspective on crime and deviance that highlights the role that breakdown of social institutions, such as the family, the economy,education, and religion.
*Crime was a normal part of all societies and that law was a symbol of social solidarity.

5

The Chicago School

An ecological approach to explaining crime that examined how social disorganization contributes to social pathology.

6

Social Ecology (Park and Burgess)

An approach to criminological theorizing that attempts to link structure and organization of a human community to interactions with its localized environment.

7

Social Pathology (Park and Burgess)

A concept that compares society to a physical organism and that sees criminality as an illness or disease that may produce deviant behavior among individuals and groups who love under or are exposed to such social conditions.

8

Social Disorganization may arise when?

A groups is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladapatation, disharmony, conflict and lack of conscience.

9

Parks and Burgess viewed cities in terms of what?

Concentric zones

10

What is Concentric Zones (5)

Each zone had its unique chariacteristics wherein unique populations and typical forms of behavior could be found.

11

The 5 Concentric Zones are?

1. Loop
2.Factory Zone
3.Zone in Transition
4.Zone in Working-Class Homes
5.Residential Zones

12

Cultural Transmission (Shaw and Mckay)

Through a process of social communication, the transmission of delinquency through successive generations of people living in the same area.

13

Cultural Transmission concluded what?

That delinquency was caused by the nature of the environment in which immigrants lived rather than by some characteristics of the immigrant group themselves.

14

Chicago school formalized the use of two sources of information.

1. Official crime and population statistics
2.Ethnographic Data

15

Official crime and population statistics

Population statistics when combined with crime information, provided material that gave scientific weight to ecological investigations.

16

Ethnographic data

Gathered in the form of life stories, or ethnographies, described the lives of city inhabitants.

17

Criminology of Place

*Modern rebirth of ecological theories
*Perspective that emphasizes the importance of geographic location and architectural features as they are associated with the prevalence of victimization.
*Hot spots

18

Broken Windows Thesis states what?

*Physical deterioration in an area leads to increased concern for personal safety among area residents and to higher crime rates in that area.

19

What is Strain Theory

Anomie- a french word meaning normlessness.

20

Who founded the Original Anomie

Emile Durkeim

21

What does the Anomie term explain?

The breakdown of social conditions can lead to feelings of strain that resulted from not being embedded personally in society.

22

Who developed the Classic Strain Theory

Robert Merton

23

What did the Classic Strain Theory develope

The concept of ANOMIE, a dis-junction between socially approved means to success and legitimate goals.

24

Strain Theory can also

Be though of as the pressure that individuals feel to reach socially determined goals.

25

Most common mode of strain theory?

.

26

Least common mode of strain theory?

.

27

What is Relative Deprivation?

The economic and social gap that exist between rich and poor people who live in close proximity to one another.

28

Relative Deprivation continued

People also asses their position in life by comparing themselves with things and people they already know.

29

What does relative deprivation create?

Feelings of anger, frustration, hostility and social injustice.

30

Distributive Justice

The rightful, equitable, and just distribution of reward within society.

31

What is General Strain Theory

A comprehensive perspective that suggest that law breaking behavior is a coping mechanism that enables those who engage in it to deal with the socioemotional problems generated by negative social relations.

32

Culture Conflict Theory

A sociological perspective on crime that suggest that the root cause of criminality can be found in clash of values between variously socialized groups over what us acceptable or proper behavior.

33

Sub cultural Theory

A sociological perspective that emphasizes the contribution made by variously socialized cultural groups to the phenomenon of crime.

34

Culture

A collection of values, ideas, beliefs, and traits that characterized a human group.

35

Subculture

A collection of values and preferences that is communicated to sub cultural participants through a process called socialization.

36

Conduct norms are defined as

Expectations for human behavior within a social group

37

What are the two typed of culture conflict?

Primary Conflict and Secondary Conflict

38

Primary Conflict

Arises when a fundamental clash of cultures occurs

39

Secondary Conflict

Arises when a smaller cultures within the primary clash.

40

Focal Concerns

Attempt to detail the values that drive members of lower-class subcultures into delinquent pursuits.

41

Key values of delinquent subcultures of Focal Concerns?

1)Trouble
2)Toughness
3)Smartness
4)Excitement
5)Fate
6)Autonomy

42

What did Focal Concerns conclude?

That sub-cultural crimes are not the direct consequences of poverty and lack of opportunity, but emanate from specific values characteristics of subcultures.

43

Define Soft Determinism

Delinquents are neither forced to make choices because of fateful experiences early in life nor entirely free to make choices unencumbered by the realities of their situation.

44

Ferracuti and Wolfgang

Claimed that violence is a learned form of adaptation to certain problematic life circumstances.

45

What are the two types of socially structured opportunities for success?

1) Illegitimate
2) Legitamate

46

Illegitimate Opportunity Structure

Preexisting sub cultural paths to success that are not approved by wider culture.

47

Ideation Evolution

A collective delinquent solution or delinquent means of achieving success may be decided upon by members of a gang.

48

What are the 3 typed of Delinquent subcultures?

1) Criminal Subcultures
2) Conflict Subcultures
3) Retreatist Subcultures.

49

Criminal Subcultures

Criminal role models are readily available for adoption by those being socialized into the subculture

50

Conflict Subculture

Participants seek status through violence

51

Retreatist Subcultures

Drug use and withdrawal from the wider society predominant.

52

Reaction Formation

Young people from all backgrounds are held accountable to a middle class measuring rod of expectations.