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AP Psychology > Social Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (38):
1

Social Psychology

The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

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Attribution Theory

Suggests how we explain someone's behavior- by crediting either situation or the person's disposition.

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Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.

4

Attitude

Feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.

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Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon

The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.

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Cognitive Dissonance

The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.

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Conformity

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.

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Normative Social Influence

Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.

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Information Social Influence

Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.

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Social Facilitation

Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.

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Social Loafing

The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.

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Deindividuation

The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

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Group Polarization

The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations though discussion within the group.

14

Groupthink

The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.

15

Prejudice

An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.

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Stereotype

A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.

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Discrimination

Unjustifiable negative behavior towards a group of its members.

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Ingroup

"Us"- people with whom one shares a common identity/

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Outgroup

"Them"- those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.

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Ingroup Bias

The tendency to favor one's own group.

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Scapegoat Theory

The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.

22

Just-World Phenomenon

The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.

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Aggression

Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.

24

Frustration-Aggression Principle

The principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression.

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Conflict

A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.

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Social Trap

A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.

27

Mere Exposure Effect

The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.

28

Passionate Love

An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.

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Companionate Love

The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.

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Equity

A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.

31

Self-Disclosure

Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.

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Altruism

Unselfish regard for the welfare of others.

33

Bystander Effect

The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.

34

Social Exchange Theory

The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.

35

Reciprocity Norm

An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.

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Social-Responsibility Norm

An expectation that people will help those dependent on them.

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Superordinate Goals

Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.

38

GRIT

Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction- A strategy designed to decrease international tensions.