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Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (37):
1

Social psychology

An area of study that attempts to explain how the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others influences the thoughts, feelings, and behaviour of individuals

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Primacy effect

The likelihood that an overall impression or judgemeant of another will be influenced more by the first information received about that person than by information that comes later

Information that does not fit is more likely to be disregarded

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Attributions

Inferences about the cause of our own or another’s behaviour

We assign or attribute causes to explain the behaviour of others and to explain our own behaviour as well

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Situational attribution

An external attribution

Attribute the behaviour to some external cause or factor operating within the situation

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Dispositional attribution

Internal attribution

Attribute the behaviour to some internal cause such as a personal trait, motive, or attitude

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Actor-observer bias

A basic difference exists in how we make attributions for our own behaviour and that of others

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Actor observer asymmetry

In a given situation, the person doing vs. Observing have different opinions

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Hostile bias

Assuming a malicious intent in others when their is none

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Fundamental attribution error

Attributing the behaviour of the individual to some personal quality

The tendency to overemphasize internalfactors and under emphasize situational factors when we explain other people’s behaviour

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Self serving bias

When we attribute our success to internal or dispositiomal causes and blame our failures on external or situational causes

Protects self-esteem and positive self-identify

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Proximity

Geographic closeness, a major factor in attraction

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Mere exposure effect

The tendency of people to develop a more positive ex]valuation of some person, object, or other stimulus with repeated exposure to it

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Halo effect

The tendency to attribute generally positive or negative traits to a person as a result of observing one major positive or negative trait

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Matching hypothesis

The notion that people tend to have spouses, lovers, or friends, who are similar to themselves in social assets such as physical attractiveness

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Conformity

Involves changing or adopting a behaviour or an attitude in order to be consistent with the norms of a group or the expectations of other peopl

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Norms

The standards of behaviour and the attitudes that are expected of members of the group

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Asch experiment

Experiment on conformity
The line test in a group
5%conformed entire time
70% confirmed some time
25% remained independent

High conformity rates are equal with groups of 3 as opposed to larger groups

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Milgrim study

Experiment on obedience
Electric shock test
65% obeyed the experiment to the end

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Foot in the door technique

A strategy designed to secure a favourable response to a small request first, with the aim of making the subject more likely to agree later to a larger request

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Door in the face technique

A strategy in which someone makes a large, unreasonable request with the expectation that the person will refuse but will then be more likely to respond favourably to a smaller request later

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Low ball technique

A strategy to gain compliance by making a very attractive initial offer to get a person to agree to an action and then making the terms less favourable

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Prejudice

Consisted of attitudes (negative) toward others based on their gender, religion, race, etc.
Beliefs and emotions that escalate into hatred

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Discrimination

Consists of behaviour, that is actions, towards members of a group

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Realistic conflict theory

As competition increases, prejudiced and discrimination and hatred among the competing groups

Economic scarcity

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In-group vs. Out group

In group - A social group with a strong feeling of togetherness and from which others are excluded

Out group - consists of individuals or groups specifically identified by the in group as not belonging

Leads to “us vs. them,” thinking

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Social cognition

Mental processes that people use to notice, interpret, remember, and apply information about the social world and that enable them to simplify, categorize, and order their world

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Stereotypes

Widely shared beliefs about the characteristic traits, attitudes, and behaviours of members of various social groups

Include the assumptions that group members are usually all alike

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Contact hypothesis

The notion that prejudice can be reduced through increases contact with members of different social groups

However, it is more likely to increase hostility unless;
1. Equal economic status
2.all must be cooperative
3. Informal contact
4. Conditions should equally favour the group
5. Perceive each members as the whole group

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Bystander effect

As the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, the probability that the victim will be helped by them decreases, and help would be delayed

May be due to
1. Diffusion of responsibility
2. Influence of calm bystanders

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Diffusion of responsibility

The feeling among bystanders at an emergency that the responsibility for helping is shared by the group, so that each individual feels less compelled to act than if he or she alone bore the total responsibility

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Pro social behaviour

Behaviour that benefits others, such as helping, cooperation. And sympathy

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Altruism

Behaviour aimed at helping another, requiring some self-sacrifice and not designed for personal gain

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Aggression

The intentional infliction of physical or psychological harm on another

Caused by the instinct theory
- the idea that human beings along with other animal species are genetically programmed for aggressive behaviour

Sigmoid Freud believed that humans have an aggressive instinct that can be turned inward (as self destruction) or outward Ias aggression or violence)

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Aggression is linked to

Genetics
Low arousal level of the autonomic nervous system
Leads to antisocial behaviour, seek stimulation, excitement, fearless
Males are more likely to be aggressive due to testosterone levels

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Frustration

Intentionally inflicting physical or psychological harm on others
Interference with the attainment of a goal or the blocking of an impulse

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Frustration aggression hypothesis

The hypothesis that frustration produces aggression

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Scapegoating

Displacing aggression onto minority groups or other innocent targets who were not responsible for the frustration causing the aggression