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Flashcards in Social Studies 2 Deck (75)
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1

Primary motivators for emigration from England were...

Buying land

2

Some people in England left their homeland because...

of the religious turmoil that engulfed England after the beginning of the Protestant Reformation

3

Puritans

A major emigrating group was the Puritans, who called for reforms to purify the church

4

Mercantilism

Provided a motive for exploration and for the establishment of colonies

5

An industrialized nation needed an inexpensive source of raw materials and markets for finished products according to...

Mercantile theories

6

Colonies provided a way...

to obtain raw materials and to guarantee a market for industrial goods

7

What motivated the French and the Dutch to explore and establish colonies in the New World?

Economic reasons

8

1608

The first English settlement

9

Henry Hudson

An English explorer paid by the Dutch, who claimed for Holland and territory that is now New York.

10

Settlements along the Hudson, Delaware, and Connecticut rivers belonged to...

The Dutch, which turned it into the colony of the New Netherlands and became a vast trading network that effectively separated English colonies of Jamestown and Plymouth

11

Why did English settlements become more prominent after 1600?

The Spanish fleet, the invincible Armada, by the English in 1588.

12

The changing power glance on the seas encouraged the English to...

increase their population and to attempt colonization of the Americas.

13

Sir Humphrey Gilbert

Obtained a six-year grant giving him the exclusive rights to settle any unclaimed land in America, was planning to establish a colony in Newfoundland, but a storm sank his ship.

14

Sir Walter Raleigh

Received a six-year grant. He explored the North American coast and named the territory through which he traveled Virginia, in honor of the "Virgin Queen" Elizabeth I of England.

15

Roanoke

Off the coast of what later became North Carolina. Raleigh convinced his cousin Sir Grenville to establish a colony there. When Grenville returned to England for supplies and additional settlers, Sir Francis Drake arrived in Roanoke and a year later found that Sir Grenville had not yet returned. The colonists left on his ship and abandoned the settlement.

16

1587

Raleigh sent another group of colonists to Roanoke, but a war with Spain broke out in 1588 and kept him from returning until 1590. When Raleigh returned to Roanoke, the colonists had vanished and had left only one clue.

17

Croatan

Word referred to a nearby settlement of natives whom they might have joined or who might have attached them.

18

1606

King James I of England granted to the Virginia Company a charter for exploration and colonization. The charter marked the beginning of ventures sponsored by merchants rather thane erectly by the Crown. The charter of the Virginia Company had two branches.

19

What prevented the English from founding and maintaining a permanent settlement in North America?

The Plymouth Company failed to establish a lasting settlement. The company rant out of money, and the settlers who had gone to the New World gave up and abandoned their established Sagadahoc Colony in Maine.

20

In 1607

The London Company sent three ships with about 104 sailors to colonize the Chesapeake Bay

21

The London Company who settled in James town wanted to find...

The northwest passage to Asia, gold, and silver or to be able to find lands capable of producing valuable goods, such as grapes, oranges, or silk.

22

Jamestown did not allow the settlers to accomplish a lot of things because...

The river which it is located by got contaminated every spring and led to the outbreak of diseases such as typhoid, dysentery, and malaria. Over half of the colonists died the first year, and by the spring of 1609, only one-third of the total number of colonists who had joined the colony were still alive.

23

Captain John Smith

A soldier who turned the colony's focus from exploration to obtaining food. Smith was able to obtain from from the local Indians led by Powatan and his daughter Pocahantas.

24

Thomas Gates

left Jamestown in 1609, ran aground on Bermuda and had to build a new ship.

25

Powatan

Leader of the Indians realized that settlers intend to stay indefinitely and might challenge the Indians for control of the surrounding territory.

26

In 1610

Only 60 colonists had survived the war with the Indians and the harsh winter and limited food.

27

Thomas West

New governor from England. Gages and West went to Jamestown, imposed marital law, responded with Indian attacks, and survived a five year war with the Indians. The war ended in 1614.

28

John Rolfe

Married Pocahontas.

29

1614

Settlers planted a mild strain of tobacco, which gave them a crop they could sell for cash.

30

Sir Edwin Sandy

Tried to reform Virginia. Sandy encouraged settlers to produce grapes and silkworms and to diversify the colony's economy in other ways. He replaced martial law with English common law.