Flashcards in Sociology Final Exam Deck (41)
What is the difference between a primary and secondary group?
Primary - small (family and closest friends)
Secondary - large and impersonal
What are the two leadership roles in groups?
Instrumental - completion of tasks
expressive - groups well-being
What are the three leadership styles in groups?
Authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire
What is group conformity?
To become like others in a particular group
What did Asch find in his study of group conformity?
Many of us are willing to compromise our own judgement to avoid discomfort of being seen as different, even by people we do not know
What did Milgram find in his study of group conformity?
People are likely to follow the lead of not only legitimate authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals, even when it means harming another person
What did Janis find in his study of group conformity?
Group members often seek agreement that closes off other point of view (groupthink)
What is a reference group?
A social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions
What is the difference between an in-group and out-group
In-group -member can feel sense of respect; desirable qualities; plus sign
Out-group - competition or opposition amongst members; negative qualities; negative sign
What is a dyad?
Relation of two
What is a triad?
Relation of three; one person can stand outside the relationship and mediate it
What are the three ways in which group diversity can affect social interaction?
Large groups turn inward, heterogeneous groups turn outward, and physical boundaries create social boundaries
What is a network?
Web of weak social ties
What is a formal organization?
Large secondary group organized to achieve goals efficiently
What are the three major types of formal organization?
Utilitarian, normative, and coercive
What are the origins of formal organizations?
Thousands of years ago elites who controlled early empires relied on government officials to collect taxes, undertake military campaigns, and build structures
What is a bureaucracy?
Organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
What are the six key elements of the ideal bureaucratic organization?
Specialization, hierarchy of offices, rules and regulations, technical competence, impersonality, and formal, written communication
What is meant by ‘organizational environment’?
Factors outside an organization that affect its operation
What is the ‘informal sides of bureaucracy’?
Personalities of organizational leaders (abusing organizational power) and communication (grapevines)
What are the two opposing trends for the future organizations?
Intelligent organizations (prize communication and creativity) and organizational flexibility
What is social stratification?
System by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
What are the four main features of a stratification system?
It is a trait of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences; carries over from generation to generation; universal but variable; involves not just inequality but beliefs as well
What is social mobility?
Change in position within social hierarchy
What are the six dimensions of social mobility?
What is meritocracy?
Social stratification based on personal merit
What is ideology?
Cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality
What is a social group?
Network or more people that share a sense of "we-ness"
Collection of people who share a particular characteristic