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Flashcards in Sociology Final Exam Deck (41)
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1

What is the difference between a primary and secondary group?

Primary - small (family and closest friends)
Secondary - large and impersonal

2

What are the two leadership roles in groups?

Instrumental - completion of tasks
expressive - groups well-being

3

What are the three leadership styles in groups?

Authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire

4

What is group conformity?

To become like others in a particular group

5

What did Asch find in his study of group conformity?

Many of us are willing to compromise our own judgement to avoid discomfort of being seen as different, even by people we do not know

6

What did Milgram find in his study of group conformity?

People are likely to follow the lead of not only legitimate authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals, even when it means harming another person

7

What did Janis find in his study of group conformity?

Group members often seek agreement that closes off other point of view (groupthink)

8

What is a reference group?

A social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions

9

What is the difference between an in-group and out-group

In-group -member can feel sense of respect; desirable qualities; plus sign
Out-group - competition or opposition amongst members; negative qualities; negative sign

10

What is a dyad?

Relation of two

11

What is a triad?

Relation of three; one person can stand outside the relationship and mediate it

12

What are the three ways in which group diversity can affect social interaction?

Large groups turn inward, heterogeneous groups turn outward, and physical boundaries create social boundaries

13

What is a network?

Web of weak social ties

14

What is a formal organization?

Large secondary group organized to achieve goals efficiently

15

What are the three major types of formal organization?

Utilitarian, normative, and coercive

16

What are the origins of formal organizations?

Thousands of years ago elites who controlled early empires relied on government officials to collect taxes, undertake military campaigns, and build structures

17

What is a bureaucracy?

Organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently

18

What are the six key elements of the ideal bureaucratic organization?

Specialization, hierarchy of offices, rules and regulations, technical competence, impersonality, and formal, written communication

19

What is meant by ‘organizational environment’?

Factors outside an organization that affect its operation

20

What is the ‘informal sides of bureaucracy’?

Personalities of organizational leaders (abusing organizational power) and communication (grapevines)

21

What are the two opposing trends for the future organizations?

Intelligent organizations (prize communication and creativity) and organizational flexibility

22

What is social stratification?

System by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy

23

What are the four main features of a stratification system?

It is a trait of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences; carries over from generation to generation; universal but variable; involves not just inequality but beliefs as well

24

What is social mobility?

Change in position within social hierarchy

25

What are the six dimensions of social mobility?

N

26

What is meritocracy?

Social stratification based on personal merit

27

What is ideology?

Cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality

28

What is a social group?

Network or more people that share a sense of "we-ness"

29

Category

Collection of people who share a particular characteristic

30

Group

A group of people who identify and interact with one another