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Brown Earth Soils

Brown Earth soil is the most common soil in Ireland. It is located in the lowland areas in the midlands in deciduous forests and provides plant material for humus. It is used for arable and pastoral farming.



Podzol is found in cold and wet areas such as the floors of coniferous forests in poorly drained areas of Cork and Galway. There is little plant litter so there is a small amount of humus and there is also little earthworm activity. It is grey in colour meaning it is infertile and acidic


Name Horizons

O horizon
A horizon
B horizon
C horizon


Give two factors soil formation is influenced by

Vegetation -
This provides humus which gives soil it’s fertility and more nutrients for the soil. Deciduous trees provide more plant litter than coniferous

Climate -
Soil formation depends and the temperature and rainfall. There is freeze - thaw action in cold areas and chemical weathering in hot areas. Moisture and heat also influence types of organisms and vegetations


Describe a threat of soil erosion due to human interference

Deforestation -

Deforestation has two major effects:
It removes a source of humus and the soil loses its fertility
It leaves soil exposed to soil erosion

A solution for this is:
Forest management - controlled felling and replacing trees