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Flashcards in south africa 1948-1964 Deck (10)
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defiance campaign

who: and, dclc, nelson mandela, albert luthuli
what: series of non-violent protests that were protesting the passbook laws. their goal was to fill the courts and jails. over 8,000 were arrested
where: South Africa, 1952-1953
significance: 2 more restricting laws were passed. The anc grew from 7,000 to 11,000 and would push other anti-apartheid groups to join them. They found that they were stronger in numbers. Since protests were peaceful it was hard for the government to justify using violence. Groups had to use newspaper and articles as a way of communication


alexandra bus boycott

who: People of Alexandra,
what: when the bus company proposed an increase in bus fares residents of Alexandra refused to ride busses. many would walk or bike up to 20 miles to work
where: alexandra (township in johannesburg), 1957
significance: gave south africans a new sense of power. demonstrated that the people are stronger when they are united together. as worker productivity fell this forced businesses to subsidize bus transport and avoid fare increase. they were not sympathetic to the black workers they cared more about the economy being in danger. taught blacks that they could get their demands heard if they threatened the probability in the white economy.



who: radical members of the and, nelson mandela
what: many anc members were frustrated with the slow pace of non violence. mk was then founded in the wake of the Sharpeville Massacre. Their mission was to fight against the South African government. They were willing to use violence, but didn't condone it. they had to be kept in secret
where: livonia, june 1961
significance: targeted symbols of white demonstration. the government passed sabotage act 1962. this lead to the rivonia trial where mandela was sentenced to life in prison


freedom charter

who: anc, congress alliance, government
what: in 1955 the and sent out 50,000 volunteers into townships and countrysides to collect freedom demands from the people of south africa
where: kliptown, south africa 1955
significance: help lead to the treason trials, revived the and and helped mobilize the african people. police thought this was an act of communism. mandela called the freedom charter revolutionary


nelson mandela

who: political leader of the antiapartheid movement
what: mad with being ignored by the government, sought broader organizations with mass support and and emphasized community based culture of africans, demanded for direct action, social lights, antiapartheid, non violent activism who advocated against the south african government and its racist policies by directing non-violent and peaceful protests
where: south africa, 1964-1990
significance: leader of MK, was jailed many years before being freed, played a key role in many anti-apartheid protests, first black president of south africa


albert Luthuli

who: anc president, chief of zulu tribe
what: he was a leader and president of the anc, won the noble peace prize, and believed strongly in non-violence. During the Defiance Campaign Chief Luthuli was actively involved in soliciting and recruiting volunteers.
where: South Africa, 1952-1967
significance: major player in defiance campaign and other anti-apartheid movements, won noble peace prize, had to resign from the anc and chief because the government believed he couldn't be both


rivonia trial

who: mk, nelson mandela, eight defendants
what: members of the anc were charged with 221 acts of sabotage. the defendants were able to use the court as a site of struggle. They argued that the law was drawn up without the consent of the majority; it was enforced to ensure the perpetuation of an unjust system, and therefore the struggle would be waged to establish a new system, including a legal system that would embody the values of a non-racial constitution that protected human rights.
where: Pretoria, South Africa, 1963-1964
significance: Mandela had a growing international reputation and the ANC sought to use the trial to win worldwide support and attention, Mandela was put in the defendants box for four and a half hours admitting to organize sabotage, he explained why he turned violent and even explained he was willing to die for this South Africa. Mandela was found guilty on four charges of sabotage. All eight were imprisoned to life imprisonment.


african national congress (anc)

who: conservative african elites
what: originally only united black elites and not the general public. they had to work behind the scenes. believed in having the four pillars, mass action, sabotage, sanctions, diplomatic isolation. wanted to gain rights for the black elites
where: south africa, 1912
significance: the ANC launched the Defiance Campaign, which gained support across South Africa from blacks, Indians and whites. People were called on to break unjust apartheid laws and offer themselves up for arrest.


sharpville massacre

who: residents of shapville, police
what: series of small clashes between police and protestors. about 5,000-7,000 protestors showed up to police stations in protest for the passbook laws. they all stood outside the police station without their passbooks expecting to be arrested however, police responded with violence while protestors remained non-violent.
where: sharpville south africa, 1960
significance: 69 died and 186 africans were injured. outrage sparked worldwide and the anc and pac were banned once again. signified the radical shift of the movement


bantu education act

*who: government (national party)
what: removed state mission schools therefore were forced to go to catholic, 7th day adventist, jewish schools where they learned how to work and build up a homeland. government claimed this was to keep kids off the street
where: south africa, 1953
significance: schools that educated south african black children were forced to close. goal was to limit education to african kids so they wouldn't be able to resist apartheid. Many people feel there are still remains of bantu education act in schools today, non equal education for everyone and every race - underfunding