SP10a - Describe the structure of an atom including features of the sub-atomic particles.

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- Proton and neutron in the nucelus, each with a relative mass of 1.
- Protons have a charge of +1.
- Electrons orbit in energy levels each with a charge of -1 and a relative mass of 1/1835 (negligible)

SP10a - Descirbe what a potential difference is.

The force that pushes the electrons to flow around the circuit.

SP10a - What is conventional current?

What we refer to as the direciton of current form positive to negative. Opposite to the flow of electrons.

SP10a - What are the two types of circuits?

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- Series: everything connected in one route
- Parallel: many options for different routes.

SP10a - Why may parallel circuits be more beneficial?

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- If the circuit becomes incomplete along one path, the rest of the circuit can still continue to function. (e.g - Switches can be connected to different parts meaning lights in parallel to each other can be switched in and off individually)
- If a bulb goes off, the rest of the circuit in parallel to this can still continue to function

SP10b - What is the unit for current and how can it be measured?

Amps (Amperes). Measured using an ammeter which is attached in series to the circuit

SP10b - What is the unit for potential difference and how can it be measured?

Volts. Measured using a voltmeter which is attached in parallel to the component you are measuring the potential difference of.

SP10b - How does total current differ in parallel and series circuits?

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- S: The total current is the same at all points throughout the circuit
- P: The total current gets split between the branches of the circuit, inversely proportionate to the resistance of the components in those branches.

SP10b - How does potential difference differ in parallel and series circuits?

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- S: The p.d is different across different components, directly proportionate to the resistance of that component
- P: The p.d is tha same at all points across the circuit

SP10c - What is current?

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- The flow of electrons
- The rate of flow of charge

SP10c - What is the unit for charge?

C - Coulombs

SP10c - What is the equation linking charge and current?

Q = I x t

(Charge = Current x time)

SP10c - What equation links energy and charge and how can this be changed to link energy to current?

**E = Q x V** (Energy = Charge x p.d)

since **Q = I x t**, this means that

**E = I x t x V** (Energy = Current x time x p.d)

SP10d - What is Ohm's law?

V = I x R

(p.d (V) = Current (A) x Resistance (Ω))

SP10d - What is resistance?

The force pushing back against p.d opposing and reducing the current.

SP10d - How do you calculate the resistance in series and parallel circuits?

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- Series: Add up the resistance of all the components
- Parallel: 1/R
_{T} = 1/R_{1} + 1/R_{2 }+ ...........

_{T}= 1/R_{1}+ 1/R_{2 }+ ...........SP10d - What is key to remember about the size of the total resistance in series and parallel and series circuits?

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- S: It is greater than any of the individual resistances
- P: It is smaller than all of the individual resistances

SP10e - What does a IV graph for fixed resistor look like and why?

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- It is a straight diagonal line showing direct proportion.
- This is because resistors are ohmic conductors.
- The voltage is directly proportionate to the current.

SP10e - What is an ohmic conductor?

A component in a circuit that follows Ohm's rule of V=IxR

SP10e - What does the gradient of an IV graph represent?

The inverse of the resistance (1/R)

SP10e - What does a IV graph for diode look like and why?

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- A line that is nearly on the x-axis till it shoots up.
- This is because a diode has an infinitely high resistance till a point where it has an infinitely low resistance

SP10e - What does a IV graph for filament lamp look like and why?

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- An S shaped 'curve'.
- This is because the resistance of a lamp increases due to the temperature increase as it conducts electricity at a higher voltage

SP10e - Describe what a graph for resistance of a thermistor would look like and why.

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- The x-axis would be temperature (°C) and the y-axis would be resistance (Ω)
- As the temperature increases, the resistance decreases. This forms a negative curve in an L shape
- This can be used to reduce the current in lower temperatures.

SP10e - Describe what a graph for resistance of an LDR (Light-dependant resistor) would look like and why.

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- The x-axis would be light intensity (lux) and the y-axis would be resistance (Ω)
- As the light intensity increases, the resistance decreases. This forms a negative curve in an L shape
- This is used for lit up signs outside. In darker conditions (lower light intensity) bulbs don't need to be as bright.
- Thus, the resistance is higher to reduce the current and brightness
- Resistance is high against the dark side #Starwars

SP10e CP - Describe your set-up for an experiment to compare the relationship of V=IxR in a resistor, and a filament lamp in parallel/series.

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- Set up a series circuit with a power pack, an ammeter, a fixed resistor and a voltmeter in parallel to this.
- Provide different voltages from the power pack.
- For each voltage provided, note down the current - Replace the fixed resistor with a lamp and repeat
- Set up the circuit from here so that there is a voltmeter attached in parallel to this.
- Attach another lamp to the circuit with another voltmeter in parallel to this
- Measure out the voltages and currents when different voltages are supplied
- Move one of the bulbs with its voltmeter to a new branch forming a parallel circuit
- Add an ammeter to each branch of the circuit
- Now measure the voltage and current depending on the voltage provided

SP10f - What is the heating effect?

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- The heating effect is when a circuit warms up due to the resistance in its wires.
- Work is done against the resistance and so energy is transferred.
- This is in the form of heating and dissipates into the surroundings

SP10f - Where is the heating effect useful?

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- In appliances such as electric heaters and kettles where the aim is to use thermal energy, the heating effect is incredibly useful.
- In these circuits, resistance tends to be high.

SP10f - Describe what resistance is in terms of a metal's structure.

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- Current is the flow of electrons.
- A metal is made of electrons flowing around positive metal ions
- When the electrons are moving in the circuit, they can collide into these posistive metal ions.
- These collisions are resistance and they transfer energy

SP10f - How can resistance be reduced in a circuit?

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- Choosing a metal with a lower resistance
- Using a thicker wire (more space for electrons to flow)
- Using a shorter wire (less distance in which they can collide)

SP10f - What formula links energy, time and voltage?

E = I x t x V

Energy = Current x time x Voltage