Flashcards in Special Procedures Deck (50):
What is thoracocentesis?
placement of needle/catheter into thoracic cavity to remove air or fluid from chest cavity
What are indications for performing a thoracocentesis?
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax, pyothorax, chylothorax
What is the perferred position for thoracocentesis?
lateral recumbancy or sternal recumbancy
T/F: With thoracocentesis, the site of the tap depends on the location of the air/fluid that is to be removed?
you will continue to aspirate with a thoracocentesis until what is achieved?
until all fluid is removed or negative pressure is restored
What are some complications of a thoracocentesis?
pneumothorax, lung laceration, laceration of the intercostal vessels
What is a thoracostomy tube?
What are some indications to place a chest tube?
When the patient has a significant amount of pleural effusion or a pneumothorax
What position should a patient be in to place a chest tube?
What type of suture pattern is used to anchor the chest tube?
chinese finger trap
What type of suture pattern is used to seal the skin around the chest tube?
What are the 2 types of aspiration with a chest tube?
continuous suction or manual aspiration
What is the purpose of a chest tube?
to re-establish negative pressure
What is pericardiocentesis?
placing a needle through the thoracic cavity into the pericardial sac around the heart to remove fluid
What are some indications for a pericardiocentesis?
pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade
What are the two most common causes of pericardial effusion?
neoplasia and pericarditis
What is cardiac tamponade?
pressure of the heart that occurs when blood or fluid builds up between the myocardium (heart muscle) and the pericardium (outer sac that covers the heart)
What is the number 1 diagnostic tool for a pericardial effusion?
what is the preferred position for a pericardiocentesis?
lateral or sternal recumbancy
What is the best monitoring tool to use during a pericardiocentesis?
what is an abdominocentesis?
aspiration of fluid from the abdominal cavity
what is an abdominocentesis used to diagnose?
hemoabdomen, uroabdomen, ascites
an abdominocentesis is contraindicated in what types of situations?
pyometra, a penetrating abdominal wound
T/F: you can redirect the needle as often as needed in a abdominocentesis?
What is a tracheostomy?
A procedure for inserting a tube through the neck into the trachea to create an airway
What are two types of tracheostomies?
controlled and slash
what are some indications for a tracheostomy?
airway obstruction, swelling, neoplasia, oral surgery, long term mechanical ventilation
T/F: in life-threatening situations, during a slash tracheostomy, attention to sterility may be abandoned in order to secure an airway
with which type of tracheostomy would you give antibiotics and why?
Slash, because sterility has been abandoned
at what location would you perform a tracheostomy?
between 3rd and 5th tracheal rings
what position should a patient be in for a tracheostomy?
how does a tracheostomy site heal after the tube has been removed?
via 2nd intention healing
do you want to inflate the cuff on a trachostomy tube? if no, when is the only time this is acceptable?
NO!! the only time this is acceptable is during mechanical ventilation
what are some complications of a tracheostomy?
obstruction from excessive secretions, nosocomial pneumonia, laryngeal stenosis, tube dislodgement, SQ emphysema
transtracheal aspiration is AKA what?
what are some indications for a transtracheal wash?
culture/cytology for acute bronchopneumonia, identify cells involved in inflammation, chronic cough, productive cough, identification of infectious agents
what are some complications of a transtracheal wash?
tracheal laceration and hemorrhage, acute dyspnea, pneumomediastinum, iatrogenic infections
What is an indication to perform a bone marrow aspiration?
to answer questions that a routine hematology examination of a blood sample does not answer, including: non-regenerative anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, suspected hemapoietic tumors, hyperglobinemia
What are accessible sites for a bone marrow aspiration in dogs?
proximal humerus, proximal femur, wing of ilium
What are accessible sites for a bone marrow aspiration in cats?
proximal femur, proximal humerus
what are the two most common needles used in a bone marrow aspiration?
Rosenthal needles and illinois sternal-iliac needles
when obtaining marrow from the lateral aspect of the wing of the ilium, what positio is best for restraint?
why is it important to only aspirate small amounts of bone marrow?
because large amounts will result in dilution of peripheral blood
does marrow clot slowly or rapidly?
which site of bone marrow aspiration is not recommended in cats or dogs that weigh less than 25 lbs?
wing of ilium
what is the best position for a thoracocentesis if the patient has a pleural effusion?
sternal if possible
what is the best position of a thoracocentesis if the patient has a pneumothorax? why?
lateral recumbancy, because the air will float to the top of the cavity and easily accessible where fluid will sit at the bottom of the cavity
at what location would you place your needle/catheter for a thoracocentesis?
between the 6th to 8th rib
what procedure is done during a pericardiocentesis to ensure placement of needle and that pericardial sac has been emptied?