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Flashcards in Special Procedures Deck (50):
1

What is thoracocentesis?

placement of needle/catheter into thoracic cavity to remove air or fluid from chest cavity

2

What are indications for performing a thoracocentesis?

Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax, pyothorax, chylothorax

3

What is the perferred position for thoracocentesis?

lateral recumbancy or sternal recumbancy

4

T/F: With thoracocentesis, the site of the tap depends on the location of the air/fluid that is to be removed?

true

5

you will continue to aspirate with a thoracocentesis until what is achieved?

until all fluid is removed or negative pressure is restored

6

What are some complications of a thoracocentesis?

pneumothorax, lung laceration, laceration of the intercostal vessels

7

What is a thoracostomy tube?

chest tube

8

What are some indications to place a chest tube?

When the patient has a significant amount of pleural effusion or a pneumothorax

9

What position should a patient be in to place a chest tube?

lateral/sternal recumbancy

10

What type of suture pattern is used to anchor the chest tube?

chinese finger trap

11

What type of suture pattern is used to seal the skin around the chest tube?

purse string

12

What are the 2 types of aspiration with a chest tube?

continuous suction or manual aspiration

13

What is the purpose of a chest tube?

to re-establish negative pressure

14

What is pericardiocentesis?

placing a needle through the thoracic cavity into the pericardial sac around the heart to remove fluid

15

What are some indications for a pericardiocentesis?

pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade

16

What are the two most common causes of pericardial effusion?

neoplasia and pericarditis

17

What is cardiac tamponade?

pressure of the heart that occurs when blood or fluid builds up between the myocardium (heart muscle) and the pericardium (outer sac that covers the heart)

18

What is the number 1 diagnostic tool for a pericardial effusion?

echocardiogram/ultrasound

19

what is the preferred position for a pericardiocentesis?

lateral or sternal recumbancy

20

What is the best monitoring tool to use during a pericardiocentesis?

continuous ECG

21

what is an abdominocentesis?

aspiration of fluid from the abdominal cavity

22

what is an abdominocentesis used to diagnose?

hemoabdomen, uroabdomen, ascites

23

an abdominocentesis is contraindicated in what types of situations?

pyometra, a penetrating abdominal wound

24

T/F: you can redirect the needle as often as needed in a abdominocentesis?

false

25

What is a tracheostomy?

A procedure for inserting a tube through the neck into the trachea to create an airway

26

What are two types of tracheostomies?

controlled and slash

27

what are some indications for a tracheostomy?

airway obstruction, swelling, neoplasia, oral surgery, long term mechanical ventilation

28

T/F: in life-threatening situations, during a slash tracheostomy, attention to sterility may be abandoned in order to secure an airway

true

29

with which type of tracheostomy would you give antibiotics and why?

Slash, because sterility has been abandoned

30

at what location would you perform a tracheostomy?

between 3rd and 5th tracheal rings

31

what position should a patient be in for a tracheostomy?

dorsal recumbancy

32

how does a tracheostomy site heal after the tube has been removed?

via 2nd intention healing

33

do you want to inflate the cuff on a trachostomy tube? if no, when is the only time this is acceptable?

NO!! the only time this is acceptable is during mechanical ventilation

34

what are some complications of a tracheostomy?

obstruction from excessive secretions, nosocomial pneumonia, laryngeal stenosis, tube dislodgement, SQ emphysema

35

transtracheal aspiration is AKA what?

transtracheal wash

36

what are some indications for a transtracheal wash?

culture/cytology for acute bronchopneumonia, identify cells involved in inflammation, chronic cough, productive cough, identification of infectious agents

37

what are some complications of a transtracheal wash?

tracheal laceration and hemorrhage, acute dyspnea, pneumomediastinum, iatrogenic infections

38

What is an indication to perform a bone marrow aspiration?

to answer questions that a routine hematology examination of a blood sample does not answer, including: non-regenerative anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, suspected hemapoietic tumors, hyperglobinemia

39

What are accessible sites for a bone marrow aspiration in dogs?

proximal humerus, proximal femur, wing of ilium

40

What are accessible sites for a bone marrow aspiration in cats?

proximal femur, proximal humerus

41

what are the two most common needles used in a bone marrow aspiration?

Rosenthal needles and illinois sternal-iliac needles

42

when obtaining marrow from the lateral aspect of the wing of the ilium, what positio is best for restraint?

lateral recumbancy

43

why is it important to only aspirate small amounts of bone marrow?

because large amounts will result in dilution of peripheral blood

44

does marrow clot slowly or rapidly?

rapidly

45

which site of bone marrow aspiration is not recommended in cats or dogs that weigh less than 25 lbs?

wing of ilium

46

what is the best position for a thoracocentesis if the patient has a pleural effusion?

sternal if possible

47

what is the best position of a thoracocentesis if the patient has a pneumothorax? why?

lateral recumbancy, because the air will float to the top of the cavity and easily accessible where fluid will sit at the bottom of the cavity

48

at what location would you place your needle/catheter for a thoracocentesis?

between the 6th to 8th rib

49

what procedure is done during a pericardiocentesis to ensure placement of needle and that pericardial sac has been emptied?

echocardiogram/ultrasound

50

What is the most important monitoring tool during a pericardiocentesis?

continuous ECG