Flashcards in Transfusion Medicine Deck (53):
What is hemostasis?
What are 2 forms or of hemostasis?
primary and secondary
What is primary hemostasis?
a form of coagulation where the vessel spasms and begins the formation of a platelet plug
what are some examples of primary hemostatic coagulation tests?
platelet counts, bleeding times (buccal mucosal bleeding time, toe nail bleed time)
Which coagulation test checks the platelet numbers?
Which coagulation test checks for platelet function?
What is secondary hemostasis?
when coagulation cascade ends in fibrin formation
What are some example of Secondary Hemostatic Coagulation test?
capillary coagulation, ACT, PT, PTT, PIVKA
what test is commonly used to dx IMHA?
how do you perform a saline test that tests for autoagglutination?
1 gt blood from EDTA tube with 1 gt of saline, mix and look for agglutination within 1 minutes
What is crossmatching?
a procedure of mixing patient sample with donor sample to see if donor blood is compatible with recipient blood
how much does a dog need to weigh in order to donate blood?
at which age should a dog retire who donates blood?
Which species needs to be sedated in order to donate blood and why?
cats, due to behavior/being fractious
why do we normally want to AVOID sedation if possible when a pet is donating blood?
because it can interfere with platelet function
how much blood can a dog donate and how often?
can donate up to 16 mls/kg every 3 weeks
how much does a cat need to weigh to donate blood?
How much blood can a cat safely donate and how often?
40-60 mls every 3 weeks (11-13 mls/kg)
when typing animals, how is blood type determined?
by the specific antigens found on the surface of the RBCs
name the 3 categories of antibodies
naturally occurring, acquired, pathogenic
what is another name for Neonatal Isoerythrolysis?
alloimmune hemolytic anemia
what is NI (neonatal isoerythrolysis?
what a negative female breeds with a positive male and the offspring have positive blood. the offspring absorbs antibodies to positive blood through moms negative colostrum which causes hemolytic dz and eventually death of the offspring
What does DEA stand for?
Dog Erythrocyte Antigen
What is the most common canine blood type?
DEA 4 positive
What is the rarest canine blood type?
DEA 3 positive
Which canine blood types are the ONLY ones (with dog blood) that can have acute hemolytic reactions?
DEA 1.1 and DEA 1.2 negative
Why must cats ALWAYS be crossmatched before a transfusion?
because they have very strong alloantibodies and with have a reaction with the wrong type
What are the 3 feline blood types?
A, B, AB
which feline blood type contains weak antibodies?
Which feline blood type contains strong antibodies?
Type B (B=bad!)
which feline blood type does not contain antibodies?
What type of cell is responsible for life threatening transfusion reactions?
When determining compatibility doing a crossmatch, what will you look for?
agglutination or hemolysis
Name some common anticoagulants used to mix with blood for a transfusion
CPDA, CPD, ACD, Heparin, and Sodium Citrate
Which anticoagulants are not recommended for transfusion blood and why?
Heparin and Sodium Citrate, because they do not contain any preservatives
What fluids can you dilute pRBCs with?
What is Fresh Whole Blood (FWB)?
blood recently collected from the animal whole, not spun down or separated
How long is FWB considered "fresh"?
up until after 8 hours of collection
What are packed red blood cells (pRBCs)?
concentrated source of RBCs that remain in a small amount of plasma post centrifugation of whole blood
Why is it important to not transfuse pRBCs in the same line or catheter as LRS?
because it will cause clotting (calcium in LRS binds w/anticoagulant)
what is the main indication for giving a pRBC transfusion
Which blood componant is frozen and contains coagulation factors but no functional platelets and is COMMONLY used?
FFP (Fresh Frozen Plasma)
What are the 2 main types of transfusion reactions?
immunological and non-immunological
what are the 2 categories of immunological transfusion reactions?
hemolytic and non-hemolytic
Give some examples of hemolytic transfusion reaction
acute hemolytic rxns, delayed hemolytic rxns, neonatal isoerythrolysis
give some examples of a non-hemolytic transfusion rxn
acute hypersensitivity, immunosuppression, acute leukocyte/platelet hypersensitivity, neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura
give some examples of non-immunological reactions
circulatory overload, hemolysis (shaking blood bag), bacterial contamination, hypocalcemia, hyperammonia and acidosis, hypothermia, embolism, dz, hemosiderosis
when performing vitals on any patient, but especially a transfusion patient, what is extremely important to monitor/observe in addition to TPR?
pulse quality (strong, weak, thready, snappy), respiratory quality/effort, patient's mentation (BAR, QAR, sedated, depressed, sleeping, obtunded)
What is the most severe type of transfusion reaction?
Acute Hemolytic Reaction
How many days post-transfusion can a delayed hemolytic reaction occur?
3-21 days post transfusion
How can you avoid an acute hemolytic reaction
crossmatching and blood typing
What species most commonly has an acute hemolytic reaction?