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Flashcards in Transfusion Medicine Deck (53):
1

What is hemostasis?

blood coagulation

2

What are 2 forms or of hemostasis?

primary and secondary

3

What is primary hemostasis?

a form of coagulation where the vessel spasms and begins the formation of a platelet plug

4

what are some examples of primary hemostatic coagulation tests?

platelet counts, bleeding times (buccal mucosal bleeding time, toe nail bleed time)

5

Which coagulation test checks the platelet numbers?

platelet count

6

Which coagulation test checks for platelet function?

bleeding time

7

What is secondary hemostasis?

when coagulation cascade ends in fibrin formation

8

What are some example of Secondary Hemostatic Coagulation test?

capillary coagulation, ACT, PT, PTT, PIVKA

9

what test is commonly used to dx IMHA?

autoagglutination/saline test

10

how do you perform a saline test that tests for autoagglutination?

1 gt blood from EDTA tube with 1 gt of saline, mix and look for agglutination within 1 minutes

11

What is crossmatching?

a procedure of mixing patient sample with donor sample to see if donor blood is compatible with recipient blood

12

how much does a dog need to weigh in order to donate blood?

>50 lbs

13

at which age should a dog retire who donates blood?

7 years

14

Which species needs to be sedated in order to donate blood and why?

cats, due to behavior/being fractious

15

why do we normally want to AVOID sedation if possible when a pet is donating blood?

because it can interfere with platelet function

16

how much blood can a dog donate and how often?

can donate up to 16 mls/kg every 3 weeks

17

how much does a cat need to weigh to donate blood?

>8 lbs

18

How much blood can a cat safely donate and how often?

40-60 mls every 3 weeks (11-13 mls/kg)

19

when typing animals, how is blood type determined?

by the specific antigens found on the surface of the RBCs

20

name the 3 categories of antibodies

naturally occurring, acquired, pathogenic

21

what is another name for Neonatal Isoerythrolysis?

alloimmune hemolytic anemia

22

what is NI (neonatal isoerythrolysis?

what a negative female breeds with a positive male and the offspring have positive blood. the offspring absorbs antibodies to positive blood through moms negative colostrum which causes hemolytic dz and eventually death of the offspring

23

What does DEA stand for?

Dog Erythrocyte Antigen

24

What is the most common canine blood type?

DEA 4 positive

25

What is the rarest canine blood type?

DEA 3 positive

26

Which canine blood types are the ONLY ones (with dog blood) that can have acute hemolytic reactions?

DEA 1.1 and DEA 1.2 negative

27

Why must cats ALWAYS be crossmatched before a transfusion?

because they have very strong alloantibodies and with have a reaction with the wrong type

28

What are the 3 feline blood types?

A, B, AB

29

which feline blood type contains weak antibodies?

Type A

30

Which feline blood type contains strong antibodies?

Type B (B=bad!)

31

which feline blood type does not contain antibodies?

Type AB

32

What type of cell is responsible for life threatening transfusion reactions?

alloantibodies

33

When determining compatibility doing a crossmatch, what will you look for?

agglutination or hemolysis

34

Name some common anticoagulants used to mix with blood for a transfusion

CPDA, CPD, ACD, Heparin, and Sodium Citrate

35

Which anticoagulants are not recommended for transfusion blood and why?

Heparin and Sodium Citrate, because they do not contain any preservatives

36

What fluids can you dilute pRBCs with?

0.9% saline

37

What is Fresh Whole Blood (FWB)?

blood recently collected from the animal whole, not spun down or separated

38

How long is FWB considered "fresh"?

up until after 8 hours of collection

39

What are packed red blood cells (pRBCs)?

concentrated source of RBCs that remain in a small amount of plasma post centrifugation of whole blood

40

Why is it important to not transfuse pRBCs in the same line or catheter as LRS?

because it will cause clotting (calcium in LRS binds w/anticoagulant)

41

what is the main indication for giving a pRBC transfusion

anemia

42

Which blood componant is frozen and contains coagulation factors but no functional platelets and is COMMONLY used?

FFP (Fresh Frozen Plasma)

43

What are the 2 main types of transfusion reactions?

immunological and non-immunological

44

what are the 2 categories of immunological transfusion reactions?

hemolytic and non-hemolytic

45

Give some examples of hemolytic transfusion reaction

acute hemolytic rxns, delayed hemolytic rxns, neonatal isoerythrolysis

46

give some examples of a non-hemolytic transfusion rxn

acute hypersensitivity, immunosuppression, acute leukocyte/platelet hypersensitivity, neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura

47

give some examples of non-immunological reactions

circulatory overload, hemolysis (shaking blood bag), bacterial contamination, hypocalcemia, hyperammonia and acidosis, hypothermia, embolism, dz, hemosiderosis

48

when performing vitals on any patient, but especially a transfusion patient, what is extremely important to monitor/observe in addition to TPR?

pulse quality (strong, weak, thready, snappy), respiratory quality/effort, patient's mentation (BAR, QAR, sedated, depressed, sleeping, obtunded)

49

What is the most severe type of transfusion reaction?

Acute Hemolytic Reaction

50

How many days post-transfusion can a delayed hemolytic reaction occur?

3-21 days post transfusion

51

How can you avoid an acute hemolytic reaction

crossmatching and blood typing

52

What species most commonly has an acute hemolytic reaction?

cats

53

What reactions can be seen with cardiovascular patients and how would you treat it?

volume overload, stop transfusion and possibly give Lasix