Special Senses DSA Test 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Special Senses DSA Test 2 Deck (11):
1

The olfactory cell's axons pass through the ___ in order to get into the olfactory bulb where they synapse on ___ cells (name all three types) in the ___ layer, which then the mitral cells axons become part of the olfactory tract

These are stimulated via EAA and the ___ cells send axons all they way to the olfactory cortex, and the __ cells stay inside the olfactory bulb

Cribriform plate, mitral (also tufted cells and periglomerular cells), glomeruli

Mitral and tufted cells, Periglomerular

2

The mitral cells are in the ___ cell layer, the tufted cells are in the ___ cell layer, and the periglomerular cells are in the ___ cell layer

Mitral, external plexiform, glomerular

3

The periglomerular cells release ___ with other glomeruli in order to suppress similar glomeruli with weaker signals than the strongest glomeruli's signal

The ___ cells also release GABA, but are activated via the mitral and trufted cells so they work further down the pathway

GABA

Granule cells

4

From the olfactory nerve, the first synapse is in the ___ and it is here that allows for the info to now be sent to both sides of the brain

After this we can go straight to the olfactory cortex

Anterior olfactory nucleus

5

********Name ALL of the areas included in the olfactory cortex ************

Anterior olfactory cortex, ***piriform cortex***, ***lateral entorhinal cortex***, anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, and periamygdaloid cortex

6

********The olfactory cortex is needed to arrive at an experience "smell", however, more processing must take place and this occurs via the ___ cortex projecting to the hippocampus, which is needed for ____ formation (both memory and recall)********

The piriform cortex projects to the ____, which is needed for controlling ___*****

And the piriform cortex also projects to the ____ via the thalamus to provide info needed for identifying flavors

^** In olfaction, the olfactory cortex also sends info BACK TO the olfactory bulb/ epoithelium to modify the receptor responses to oderants

Entorhinal, memory

lateral hypothalamus, appetite

Medial orbitofrotal cortex

7

Sour tastes are produced when ___ enters the taste bud via a hydrogen-ion channel

Salt tastes are produced when ___ or ___ enters the taste buds through their respective channels

Umami is a ___ receptor

Sweet and bitter work via secondary messanger systems

Hydrogen ion

Na or Ca

Metabotropic glutamate

8

The main type of odorant receptors are ORs and are ____ receptors, specifically called ____, that increase cAMP and AC to allow Na and Ca influx and therefore relay info to the brain

There is also a pheromone odorant receptor called ___ that we have

GPCR, Golf (similar to Gs)

TAAR

9

For taste, gustatory inputs travel to the ___, then the ___, then the ___

From the thalamus, along with branches to the gustatory cortex, there is also a side branch that goes to the ___ to have in impact on appetite

NTS -> Thalamus -> Gustatory cortex (includes the anterior insular cortex)

Lateral hypothalamus

10

The perception of flavor requires taste input from the ___ cortex, smell input from the ___ cortex, and ___ info from the mouth

****ALL three areas have axons to the ____ cortex to produce the sensation of flavor and appreciation of food***

So a patient with a loss of gustation (taste) can possibly have a primary loss in olfaction (smell) because of odorants released in the mouth activate the olfactory epithelium and that is a big chunk of what we take

Gustatory, Olfactory, Somatosensory

Lateral posterior orbitofrontal

11

Increased intracranial pressure that restricts venous return from the retina is called ____ and can result in edema or swelling of the ____

Note that this is an extension of the subarachnoid space around the optic nerve

Papilledema, optic disc