Flashcards in Speciation Deck (63):
"The genetic change in a population from one generation to another"
"A group of organisms that interbreed to produce fertile offspring"
"The formation of a new species, the result of reproductive isolation"
"Members of the same species that live in the same geographical area"
"A local population that has no or limited gene flow with members of other population"
"When a species has an extended geographical range, variation may occur along a gradient from one point of the range to another point"
"When the two ends of a cline join to form a loop or a ring"
"Movement of alleles carried by individuals between populations"
"A change in allele frequency due to the accumulated effects of chance over successive generations"
"When a small number of individual animals found a population with only a small proportion of the 'parent' population"
"Occurs when a large population is suddenly reduced due to a catastrophic environmental event, and allele frequencies are randomly altered"
"Inbreeding increases chances of favourable alleles coming together and results in desirable phenotype"
"Outbreeding tends to increase the number of heterozygous in a population and decrease the chances of harmful alleles coming together"
"The process in which inheritable traits that make an individual more likely survive long enough in its environment to reproduce become more common in the population over successive generations"
Environmental factors which influence individuals survival"
"Individuals at both extremes of distribution are selected for simultaneously"
"Extreme phenotypes are selected against, and average phenotypes are selected for"
"A single phenotype is selected for and the allele frequency continuously shifts in one direction"
"Males (or females) compete for partners, with the heritable characteristics of the 'winners' being passed on"
"Evolutionary trees drawn as a branching diagram which shows inferred evolutionary relationships between taxa"
"A sudden, permanent change in the genetic material@
A missense mutation produces an altered protein
A stop codon results in the early termination of protein synthesis
Increase an individuals fitness
Decrease in an individuals fitness
Refers to the number of chromosomes in a cell
The entire complement of genetic material in an organism
The number of chromosomes in a gamete, n
The number of chromosomes in the zygote, 2n
The number of chromosomes in each set, can be same as haploid
Only certain chromosomes are represented an unusual number of times
Only one chromosome is present instead of two
Three copies of the chromosome are present instead on two
Four copies of the chromosome are present instead of two
Every chromosome is represented 3 or more times
Involves the multiplication of an entire genome within a single species
The spindles do not function properly and so the chromosomes are not separated
Hybridisation between species and the chromosomes in the offspring were doubled producing fertile seeds
The formation of a new species as a result of reproductive isolation
Closely related species that live in the same geographic location
Closely related species that live in different geographic locations
Results from physical barriers separating populations
Results from the fact that the differences in structure of the external reproductive organs do not allow transfer of sperm between the sexes
Results from differences in habitat within the same geographical area
Results from breeding behaviour occurring at different times
Results from differences in behaviour, typically courtship
Results from incompatibility of gametes
The offspring is inviable (unable to survive) so dies in early development
The hybrid reaches maturity but is infertile so cannot breed
The hybrid produced is fertile but it's offspring are infertile
When a population is divided into two or more geographically isolated populations and new species are formed
One species give rise to two or more species without prior geographical separation
As a result of polyploidy
Preserved remains left by organisms that lived in the past
The study of the geographic distribution of species
Large scale allopatric Speciation by a significant geophysical event
New species could evolve with a gradual transition from one form to another
The formation of many different species that are no longer closely related
When two or more species result from a common ancestor
Involves the rapid evolution of a large number of species from an ancestral group to occupy a variety of different ecological niches
Two or more unrelated species evolve to resemble each other as a result of similar selection pressures
Occurs when two or more unrelated groups evolve along similar lines