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Flashcards in species Deck (42)
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1

Calanus hyperboreus

Copepods
Arctic
Eat phytoplankton
Overwinter at depth with high lipid storage

2

Patella vulgata

Common limpet
Important rocky shore grazer - use radula to scrape algae off rocks
Secondary gills to use water around the surface of the rock
Morphological plasticity - high shore limpets have smaller foot + grow taller to reduce heat loss and desiccation (Helmuth 1998)

3

Littorina littorea

Common periwinkle
Grazer on UK rocky shores
Mid-lower shore

4

Nereis diversicolor

Ragworm
Important food source for wading birds in estuaries
Euryhaline - copes very well in low salinity but not in completely freshwater

5

Eunice aphroditois

Bobbit worm
Benthic predator in burrows

6

Sargassum

Group of seaweeds providing substrate in the Gulf of Mexico
Diverse food web but actually supported by phytoplankton (Rooker et al. 2006)

7

Rhincodon typus

Whale shark
Biggest fish on Earth - 12m long!
Filter feeder
Long distance seasonal migrations and daily vertical migrations (Wilson et al. 2006)

8

Lysianassoids

Most abundant amphipods of benthic communities
Scavengers
Detect food by chemoreception

9

Ciona intestinalis

Sea squirt
Encrusting benthic species

10

Maerl

Mixture of red seaweeds
Produce hard, chalky calcium carbonate skeletons -> hard substrate for other organisms
Needs sunlight to grow - lives in water shallower than 20m

11

Avicennaceae

Black mangroves

12

Rhizophoraceae

Red mangroves

13

Pelvetica

Seaweed on rocky shores
Waxy cuticle to prevent desiccation slows photosynthesis

14

Fucus spiralis

Upper shore seaweed species
Spiral keeps water near to prevent desiccation but also reduces surface area so photosynthesis is reduced

15

Fucus vesiculosis

Mid shore seaweed species
Has pneumatocysts to keep afloat when tide is coming in - photosynthesis continues

16

Melarhaphe neritoides

Top shore small periwinkle

17

Littorina saxatalis

Upper shore small periwinkle

18

Littorina obtusa

Flat periwinkle
Mid shore

19

Nucella lapilus

Dog whelk
Drills through the shells of other organisms to eat

20

Pisaster ochracceus

Purple sea star
Predates on mussels -> controls lower limit on rocky shores
Increases biodiversity by preventing mussel domination - top-down control

21

Zostera marina

Seagrass
Common at mouth of estuaries
Needs stable sediment to fix onto
Fish nursery ground
Sea horses = sea grasses specialists

22

Carcinus maenas

Common shore crab
Classic estuarine osmoregulator
Temperature = key determinant of distribution (migrates to deeper waters when cool), inactive below 8C

23

Platichthys flesus

Flounder
Common in estuaries
Juveniles in upper estuaries + adults in lower
Predators cannot tolerate low salinity - juveniles protected
Spawn in open sea
Osmoregulators

24

Branta bernicla

Brent geese
Feed on seagrasses in estuaries

25

Melosira arctica

Diatom important for primary production in sea ice

26

Euphausia superba

Antarctic krill
Primary consumer - same niche as calanus hyperboreus
500 million tons of krill in Southern Ocean
Keystone species due to importance of food source + iron storage in Southern Ocean

27

Ophiura sarsi

Brittle star
Filter feeder

28

Myctophidea (family)

Lantern fish
246 species
65% of all deep sea biomass
Bioluminescent patterns unique to each species

29

Osedax

Deep sea polychaetes
Bone eating
Acid pump -> bone dissolves
Present on whale carcasses
Symbiotic with bacteria to produce bone-digesting enzymes

30

Eurythenes

Deep sea amphipods
Benthic scavengers
Can eat up to 75% of own body weight in one sitting then go up to a year without any food