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Helmuth 1998

Limpets (patella vulgata) growing on the upper shore have a smaller foot and grow taller - avoid heat loss and desiccation
Lower shore limpets are flatter and wider


Howard et al. 2017

Anthropogenic degradation of marine ecosystems is leading to CO2 uptake by photosynthesis to decrease


Laverock et al. 2011

Bioturbation releases 80% of nitrogen needed for photosynthesis in estuaries


Sumich 1996

Oysters and mussels close their shells at low tide to avoid unfavourable conditions


Deng et al. 2010

Antifreeze proteins arose from duplication of sialic acid synthase (SAS-B) gene


Kiko et al. 2010

Antifreeze proteins bind to ice crystals in cells to prevent growth


Aronson et al. 2007

Warming sea temperature -> King crabs migrating into Antarctica


Rate of living theory

Higher metabolism -> shorter life as toxic metabolites accumulate
Gigantism in polar regions due to low metabolic rate?


Baco and Smith 2003

Whale fall carcasses = hard substrate on deep sea floor
High biodiversity
8km apart - link benthic communities


Dover et al. 2002

400 species described from hydrothermal vents


Pauly et al. 1998

Fishing down the food web
Average trophic level of fish catches is decreasing


Vermeij et al. 2010

Studied simple cilia on coral larvae + detailed how they detect sound waves in the sea to aid navigation


Simpson et al. 2011

Studied antennae on copepods - more complex sound-detecting organs


Kim et al. 2014

Increased anthropogenic emissions -> increased [nitrate] in upper oceans
- Most detectable in near-shore environments


Hinder et al. 2012

Since 2006 dinoflagellate abundance has decreased and diatom abundance has increased
- Due to increased sea temperature
- Largest regional change in the North Sea

Diatoms associated with more turbulent conditions
- Climate change -> more windy conditions -> kinetic energy of sea increases


Boyd et al. 2015

Surface nitrate concentrations predicted to decline globally due to climate change increasing stratification
- Most prominent in the subtropical and tropical Pacific


Moore et al. 2013

Different nutrients needed for different processes - which should be prioritised when trying to mitigate climate change?


Wong et al. 2011

Habitats with hard emergent or biogenic structures have higher secondary production than those lacking substrate
- Oyster reef = highest secondary production/area


Beaugrand et al 2002

Changes in zooplankton assemblages = indicator for whole ecosystem changes
- Significant poleward shift for all species


Genner et al. 2010

Spring spawning reproductive phenology dependent on November-December temperature
- Cooler -> earlier winter migration -> earlier maturation -> earlier spawning
- Warmer -> later winter migration -> later maturation -> later spawning

Summer spawning reproductive phenology dependent on March temperature
- Warmer -> faster development -> earlier spawning

Flounder in estuaries migrate offshore to reproduce
- Warm year -> later migration -> later spawning


Myers et al. 2003

Biomass of fish decrease by 80% within first 15 years of industrial fishing
Gulf of Thailand lost 60% of large finfish, sharks and skates in first 5 years of industrial trawling


Rooker et al. 2006

Determined trophic level of Sargassum-associated species + identified Sargassum is used as a habitat, not a food source
- Food web supported by phytoplankton

Sargassum has high levels of polyphenols to act as a chemical defense against grazers


Wilson et al. 2006

Whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) feed in Ningaloo Reef March-June
- Euphasiids and bait fish
- Protected when in Australian waters

Rhincodon typus targetted in Indonesia - at risk when migrating through Indian Ocean
Migrate to follow food source
1% of time below 300m, deepest dive 1000m
- Eurythermal


Metcalfe et al. 2011

Water is dynamic, habitats instable -> fish constantly adapting to new conditions
Plaice use tidal movements to migrate up to 25km/day
- Bury in sand when tide is going in opposite direction to desired destination
- Use of tide -> reduced energy cost of swimming


Evans et al. 2016

Coral triangle in Indo-Pacific = centre of accumulation, origin and survival
Over 2000 coral reef associated fish species here


Mumby et al. 2004

Mangrove forrests = one of most threatened tropical ecosystems
- Global loss >35%

Largest herbivorous fish (Scarus glacamaia (rainbow parrot fish)) depends on mangroves
- Mangrove removal -> local extinction

Biomass of blue striped grunt (Haemulon sciurus) is 25 times bigger in mangrove-rich areas


Connell 1961

Detailed competition between mussels on rocky shores
Chthalamus more abundant when balanus removed
Competition = lower determinant for Chthalamus
- Tolerant of a wider range of distribution than it actually lives in due to being outcompeted


Tomanek et al. 2002

Rocky shores have very clear zonation
Determined by competition and physical factors


Paine 1974

Mytilus californianus has constant upper limits on rocky shore - determined by physical characteristics
- lower limit is predictable - determined by predation by starfish (pisaster ochraceus)


Attrill and Rundle 2002

Ecotone = rapid change
- Narrow zone of gradient between two homogenous environments
- Sharpest = nature with humans
Ecocline = gradual change
- More stable than ecotones
- Less stressful

Estuaries = two ecoclines